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lpd`S> & h^y kdpQpfp & qfqX$admp & dyhuV$pBd & dygpL$ps & qfqX$a `eg & 2000_p hj_p Mpk gMp
gh V$pfu dyipefp X$pefp iv$kN šk

 kdpQpf rhspfhpf
NyS>fps_y fpS>L$pfZ
Q|V$Zu, 2002
NyS>fpsdp tlkp
Adv$phpv$
ApZv$
Adfgu
b_pkL$pW$p
cph_Nf
c$Q
v$plpv$
L$R>
MX$p
Np^u_Nf
Np^fp
S|>_pNY$
d_Nf
dlkpZp
_hkpfu
`Qdlpg
`pV$Z
`pfbv$f
fpS>L$pV$
kyfs
kpbfL$pW$p
kyf_Nf
hX$pv$fp
hgkpX$
bL$ L$pcpX$

 e[sh
dy$u KQfp dqX$ep

 dygpL$ps
Aeys eproL$ :
   _f dpv$u_p lp\dp
   NyS>fps kgpd _\u
huZ drZepf :
   Nygpdu_p dp_kdp\u
   NyS>fpsu hlgp blpf
   _uL$mu iep R>
L$. L$p. ipu :
   L$fhy S> `X
L$rh fdi `pfM_u
   lmhu-d_u dygpL$ps
NyZhs ipl : kS>L$
   L$v$u `fZhy _ šCA
qv$_L$f šju : TuZp_p
   rbgLyg a_ _\u
S>ev$h `V$g :
   22 Arg_p qv$hk
   NyS>fps L$v$u _l] c|g
`fi_p bp `fi rhi
   iy L$l R>
rbq`_ ipl : Ap v$idp
   `kphpmp \C_ `Z
   iprs _\u
cfs ipl : AX$fhX
   $`kp `X$ph L$ Ap`?
ldfpS> ipl : dybCdp
   "NyS>fps ch_' b^pi

 ^d
`dyMhpdu :
   _p, drlgpAp_ ks
   b_phuiy _l]'
hpdu k[Qv$p_v$ :
   lz dpnbpndp
   dp_sp _\u
hZhpQpe zrdgLy$dpf
   lpe lgp R>pX$p,
   S>e uL$Z bpgp
X$p. huZ spNqX$ep :
   `p` cpfs_ AL$ rsu
   v$i b_phhp dpN R>
qv$gu` fpZ`yfp :
   dpfpqfbp`y_u
   rdgL$s_u s`pk epš

 d_pfS>_
A S> Ap`Zp Aagps|_
   AV$f `fi fphg
QL$ps ipl :
   lz šMd g_pfp Ry>
Ag Ap`Zu `X$piZ
   S>hu Arc_u fpqNZu
AL$ tS>v$Nu _pd
   A_y Aprsi L$p`qX$ep
v$hpN `V$g :
   _pQ M|b, lkph M|b

 fpS>L$ue
_f dpv$u : cpS>`
   Ap A[_`funpdp\u
   ldMd `pf Esfi
Ap_v$ubl_ `V$g :
   "kp^_p'_u cgpdZ L$fu
   Adp MpVy$ iyL$ey?
AipL$ c$ :
   lh L$p_|_u gX$pC gX$uiy
lfu_ `pW$L$ :
   lz M|__p Apfp`u _\u
S>e_pfpeZ epk :
   b hjdp _lfpdp
   `pZu hlsy L$fhy R>
iL$ftkl hpOgp :
   dpfp Dءi cpS>`_
   Of bkpX$hp_p R>
L$piufpd fpZp :
   kNW$__p Acph lpep
fpS>tkl fpZp : L$pC
   rkqfek Akspj _\u
aL$ufcpC hpOgp :
   _ dpf $.12,000
   L$fpX$_p v$p$ _\u `php
Qpgp, lf_ `X$p_
   khpgp `|R>uA
L$iycpC : hX$p ^p_
   kp\ dpf AZb_ph _\u

 rbT_k
qL$fuV$ kpdep : gpL$p_p
   400 AbS> $r`ep
   L$`_uAp Apmhu NC R>
S>ekyM `V$g :
   Adpf v$i R>pX$u Qu_
   S>hp rkhpe R|>V$L$p S> _\u
Ar_g AbpZu :
   qfgpek BV$f_V$ nӡ
   15,000 L$fpX$ fpL$i
L$_epcpC L$pV$pV$f :
   L$fpX$`rs Mfp,
   `Z X$pD_ Vy$ A\

 ifbf
v$u_p dlsp :
   Ncfphp_u S>$f _\u
"kbu'_p ^rd$p
   fphg_u dygpL$ps

 Q|V$Zu kdpQpf
`V$pQ|V$Zu, 2002
L$p`pfi_ A_
   `Qpes_u
    Q|V$ZuAp-2000

 skhufpdp
27 abyApfu `R>u
   NyS>fpsdp šhp dmsp
   ep
hpdu_pfpeZ `\_p
   Ap^pfsc dyMhpdu
Adv$phpv$ :
   hp cu ep qv$_ \
dv$u fN gpep...
[gV$__u L$R>epp
 

  

^e ^e kpfp$_u ^fsu!

Ap`τ gys \egy S>Nrk dlpfu _e

L$p[s c$_p `ysL$ "Qs_p_p Dk'_ kprle `qfjv$_p `pqfsprjL$p

AMp_p R>`p : v$ekpkfp hpNsp QpbMp

qv$hpmudp Of_u kpak|au : L$V$guL$ qV$k

"ApM_p AauZu'_p NpeL$ qv$gu` ^pmqL$ep : kpX$p `pQ v$peL$p_u kNusepp

Apdrhpk\u cey AL$ fZp v$sy e[sh

kpfp$_y _pd NS>hi Ap V$pbqfepAp

kde Qy`Qp` šep L$f R>

L$pC rhpk_p v$uhp S>gphp

hs__u ^|m_ NTgpS>rg

h_\u cf`|f Bt_N_p "Ai_ qfg'

L$R> : hfku_p Ahkf

qfqX$a.L$pd_ NyS>fps c|L$`_p L$hfS> dpV$ AhpX$

Adv$phpv$_u MpZu`uZu_u hpvcfu kaf

kph^p_! _pfu Av$pgs Qpgy Apl!

cpfs_p eyL$v$uAp_ L$pC R>pX$phi?

cpfs_u bpmL$p dpV$_u k\pAp : Ap`τ Npfh

`uV$f cpqV$ep_ b `yrgTf B_pd dep

T|gsp rd_pfp : AL$ ce fle

qfqX$a.L$pd/NyS>fpsu_u AL$ hj_u kaf

hX$pv$fp_p k|fkpNf smph_ kyv$fsp bnhp_y Aqcep_

L$R>u bl_p_p `L$pfh_ AhpX$

NpX$g_u fS>hpX$u lpV$g_ b Apsffp$ue AhpX$

hS>gL$p Npd S>mkNl_u ApNhu `rs A`_phu

"`|fu'Ap `v$p L$fi kpfp$ eyr_hrkV$u

hY$hpZ_p fdicpC_y g_kb^u.L$pd

`pfbv$f_y kpv$u`r_ rhpge : L$\pL$pf fdi ApTp_y "dpZk DNpX$hp_y Msf'

"d_ R>pX$u_ kpkqfe Ld Qpgu NC, v$uL$fu?'

lh_Ap! hpQL$p! "f]NZp šMhp' AV$g iy?

NyS>fps_p dpQ, 2003 `R>u_p Alhpgp A_ gMp

kkv$ue Zpgu mhhp cpS>`-L$pNk hQ kdS|>su
NyS>fps kfL$pf_p Av$pS>`_u AL$ TgL$
NyS>fps_p bS>V$ AN rd epOps
"`pqL$sp_ kp\_u dQ ep sp kdš hX$ L$` dmu Nep'
NyS>fps rh^p_kcpdp kphfL$f_u skhuf dyL$pi
hSy>cpC hpmpA NyS>fps_y bS>V$ fS|> L$ey
dygpL$psuAp_u Qp b^ `Z ^p_p_u lhpC epp Qpgy
NyS>fpsdp \`pe flgu _hu eyr_hrkV$uAp
NyS>fps_u _v$uAp_ AL$bu kp\ šX$hp_u epS>_p
fpe`pg_p hQ_ kp\ rh^p_kcp_y bS>V$k i$
_f dpv$u_ A_.Ak.._y kyfnpL$hQ
huS>h`fpiL$pfp `f $. khpkp L$fpX$_p bpš
dNmhpf\u NyS>fps rh^p_kcp_p bS>V$k_p Apfc
R>hV$ `pqL$sp_ 280 dpR>udpfp_ dys L$ep
srgep fpAp cpS>` kfL$pf kpd ApNmu Q]^ R>
rh rlvy$ `qfjv$_p 27duA NyS>fpsdp ri|mv$unp_p L$pe$d
dqX$L$g, BS>_fu ipMpdp hi_u L$pehplu kfm b_i
\pr_L$ hfpe_p Arsd `qfZpdp `Z lf
kpfp$dp cpS>`_p S>eS>eL$pf
Adv$phpv$ Apk`pk_u sdpd `prgL$p cpS>` L$bS> L$fu
\pr_L$ hfpe_u Q|V$ZuApdp cpS>`_u rhS>e `spL$p
`pqL$sp_ pfp 11 dpR>udpfp_p A`lfZ
NyS>fps_p MX|$sp_ Abš $r`ep_y _yL$kp_
Q$hps NyS>fpsdp sbplu kƮ : Ly$g ApW$_p dps
L$dpkdu hfkpv$\u Df NyS>fpsdp `pQ_p dps
sgMfuv$udp c$pQpf : s`pk_p Apv$i
NyS>fpsdp hfkpv$ kp\ cpf `h_ awL$pep
NyS>fps_u 21 L$pgš `f AQp_L$ v$fpX$p
\pr_L$ hfpe_u Q|V$ZuAp rh_prh_ `|Z
L$pNkuAp_ kX$phsp kk L$X$g_p `v$papi
BbuA 24 L$gpL$dp khp L$fpX$ $r`ep_u huS>Qpfu `L$X$u
cpS>` kfL$pf `f ApL$fp lpf L$fsp Adftkl Qp^fu
frhhpf ep_pfu \pr_L$ hfpe_u Q|V$ZuAp dpV$ Qpf QfdkudpA
cpS>` kfL$pf_p ^p_p `psp_u k`q lf L$fi
dpY$fp_p blzQfp dqv$f_p Zppf \i
R|>V$pR>hpep b_php rkhpe Cv$_u DS>hZu iprs`|Z
v$uhpbu V$pZ S> gpBV$ e R>
dqZ`yfdp b NyS>fpsu S>hp_p iluv$
NyS>fpsdp v$p$_p A$pAp b^ : b|V$gNfp bL$pf
NyS>fps eyr_hrkV$u_p L$`kdp duAp `f rsb^
Npd`Qpesp_u Q|V$Zudp 70 V$L$p dsv$p_
rd_fg `pZu_p gbpfV$fu V$V$_p Apv$i
bpX$_p `qfZpd `f rh L$`_u Akf \i
rlvy$hpv$u kfL$pf rlvy$Ap dpV$_p L$pdp_u i$Aps epf L$fi?
NyS>fpsdp h^y 600 Npdp vy$L$pm_u Q`V$dp
|$X$ ApBg fpeV$udp NyS>fps_ V$_v$uW$ 350 $r`ep_p h^pfp
ap_v$f : NyS>fps `f $. 880 L$fpX$_p bpš
ApL$fp L$fhfp_p hSy>cpC hpmp_p kL$s
NyS>fps_p huS>muQpfp kpZkpdp
X$pedX$ eyqbgu pX$ : Apfp`uAp NflpS>f
NyS>fpsdp L$dpkdu hfkpv$ : MX|$sp lspi
`rd fgh ir_hpf kpS> ky^udp `|hhs \i
L$iycpC ApS>L$pg ep R>?
NyS>fps_p R> kpkv$p `pk\u gpL$p_u A`np
`Qpes-`prgL$p_u Q|V$Zu fkpL$kucfu
Adv$phpv$-_qX$epv$ Akk lpCh Mygp dyL$pep
L$iycpCA _p `pX$u : cph_pbl_ L$dp du b_i
NyS>fpsdp hpk__p _pd d]Xy$
NyS>fps_p 35 X$uhpeAk`u AL$kp\ r_h
hpS>`eu sfa\u NyS>fps_ A_pMu cV$
26 eyApfu : NyS>fpsdp L$X$L$ bv$pbs
NyS>fpsdp L$pNk_u rb_kpv$preL$ _urs_ aV$L$p
dpv$ukfL$pf, AL$ drl_p A_ tkNsg_p cph
gpL$p_ NfdpN v$pfhp_u hps S> R>_
V$pf rhfy L$bg Ap`fV$k; gX$pC Qpgy R>
ApMf \pr_L$ hfpe_u Q|V$Zu_y "dylws' _uL$ey
Adv$phpv$_ bpv$ L$fsp dL$fk$pqs iprs\u ES>hpC
NyS>fpsdp v$p$b^u `f _S>f fpMsy _ipb^u Mpsy b^ \i?
Np^fpL$pX$, pkhpv$u lzdgp, dpv$u A_ NyS>fps
rlvy$-dy[gd kdyv$pe_ šX$sp AL$dp slhpf
NyS>fps cpS>`_p _hp dyM_u `kv$Nu dpV$ L$hpes i$
NyS>fpsdp NfL$pev$ hksp 15 lf bNgpv$iuAp
dpv$u_y ^p_dX$m V|$L$ kdedp rhsfhp_u iesp
NyS>fpsdp hpl_p OZp, `Z V$pqaL$ kk_y iy?
kpfp$_p b L$pNku _spAp v$fpX$p_u c]kdp
^p_p AphfV$pBd L$f R>
ApMf L$iycpCA qv$lu S>hp d_ d_phu gu^y
NyS>fpsdp ApBV$u_y ApL$jZ OV$u fy R>?
bpX$-r_Nd_p Qfd_p_ fp_pdy Ap`hp_p Apv$i
kpfp$-L$R>dp L$dyfsp_y L$dW$pZ
`pqL$sp_ cpfs_p 280 dpR>udpfp_ dys L$fi
NyS>fps kfL$pf_y bS>V$ L$hy li?
sp NyS>fps_u _hfpu rhv$iuApdp ^|d dQphi
NyS>fpsdp Mp_Nu ipmpAp_u kep L$d h^u flu R>?
`Qpesp-`prgL$pAp_u Q|V$Zu abyApfudp ephp_u iesp
NyS>fps S>kgdf_ `Z `pR>m R>pX$u v$u^y
NyS>fpsdp L$V$gp `pqL$sp_uAp NfL$pev$ hkhpV$ L$f R>?
NyS>fpsdp W$X$u_y dpSy> : W$f W$f hfkpv$
kpfp$-v$rnZ NyS>fpsdp ApBg rdgfp_ ep v$fpX$p
rh^p_kcp_p _hp Aen sfuL$ dpZkp_p dNmv$pk `V$g
Opeg "Opeg' L$C fus bep?
dpv$u kfL$pf_u pepqfV$u : rhL$pk A_ kgpdsu
pkhpv$rhfp^u v$m_u lh A[_`funp?
dpR>udpfp bpbs sp cpfs-`pqL$sp_ kdS|>su L$f...
NyS>fps_p r_L$pk h`pfdp 22 V$L$p_p h^pfp
NyS>fps_p ^q_L$pdp rhv$iu dpV$fL$pf_p h^sp $T
Adv$phpv$, hX$pv$fpdp dsv$p__u ^udu i$Aps
kfL$pfu Ar^L$pfuAp_u qv$hpmu W$X$u
^p_`y_ `funpdp Qpfu L$fhp bv$g k
NyS>fpsdp kps hqf$ `pguk Ar^L$pfuAp_u bv$gu
L$ep "kfv$pf' h^y gpL$re?
NyS>fps kfL$pf Q|V$Zu ApQpfkrlsp_p cN L$ep?
dpv$u_ B-dBg `f ^dL$u : dybC_p eyhp__u ^f`L$X$
AdqfL$p_u epp\u `pR>p afgp iL$ftkl hpOgp
kduf Mp__p AL$pDV$f\u Ecp \ep R> khpgp
kdhV$ `R>u hpOgpA fp_pdy `pRy> gC gu^y
NyS>fps `pguk_p AL$pDV$f fL$pX$
AX$hpZu-dpv$u_u lep_y L$phsfy OX$_pf kduf Mp_ W$pf
_ipb^u ^p_ aL$uf hpOgpA fp_pdy v$C v$u^y
cpfsu keygf S|>_\u NyS>fps_u bfdp Esfi
dye ^p_p_u bW$L$dp dpv$u_p k|Q_p_u _p^ ghpC
NyS>fpsdp Av$pS> `pQ gpM _hp dsv$pfp _p^pep
Adv$phpv$ krls v$icfdp 53 rdgp afu Qpgy L$fpi
NyS>fps kfL$pf_p L$dQpfuAp_ bp_k, AX$hpk_u glpZu
v$plpv$ rS>gp_p Tpgpv$dp L$pdu R>dL$gy
rihk_p NyS>fpsdp NY$ b_phhp ^pf R>?
NyS>fpsdp \pq_L$ hfpe_u Q|V$ZuAp afu dpL|$a
kduf Mp_ kpd S>e`yf `pguk `Z Ny_p _pep
_hfpu_u S>d rv$hpmu `Z L$v$pQ qa$u fli
Nfbp ApepS>L$p_ \X$ `pV$} hudp Ap`hp_p BL$pf
cpS>` NyS>fpsdp ^dpsfrhfp^u L$pev$p gphi?
Ly$v$fsu Apasp `pR>m 1500 L$fpX$ $r`ep MQpep
dpv$uA AL$ hjdp NyS>fps_ iy Apey?
ApS>\u _hfpu i$ : NyS>fpsdp R|>`p X$f
dpv$u_u lep_y L$phsfy L$f_pf kduf Mp__y Ny_pMpf h_
Apspb Akpfu A_ kduf Mp_ : ip kb^ R>?
_hfpu : gpL$pdp DdN A_ R|>`p X$f `Z Mfp
dpv$u_u lep_y L$phsfy : 9 ApsL$hpv$uAp qfdpX$ `f
NyS>fpsdp ApBAkApB_u hr ApS>L$pg_u _\u
NyS>fpsdp qX$ak V$X$u_p L$pk l i$ \ep _\u
NyS>fpsdp agpC AL$ hps A_ rihdqv$fpdp \ep ^kpfp
NyS>fpsu rhp\}Ap dpscpjpdp S> _p`pk
cpCQpfp_p spfdp šX$php_y iuMhsu k\p
kpfp$dp kss Qp\p qv$hk huS>mu Mpfhpsp gpL$p `fip_
rhv$i\u NyS>fps Aphsp NyS>fpsuAp dpV$ kpfp kdpQpf
ApBAkApB NyS>fps_p eyhp_p_ r_ip_ b_ph R>
NyS>fps_p L$V$gpL$ cpNpdp ArkX$ hfkpv$
dpv$u : L$gpd_u dygpL$ps Npfh_u hps R>
Mpk epv$u : NyS>fpsdp `V$pg`` L$p_ L$p_ apmhpep R>?
NyS>fps kfL$pf L$q`g_ le dQqakf dp_ R>?
NyS>fpsdp vy$L$pm_p dyء fpS>L$ue NfdpNfdu i$
fgehlpf W$` \C S>sp dykpafp cNhp_ cfpk
huS>`yfhW$p Mpfhpep A_ Aahpbf Nfd \C Ney
NyS>fps_p AX$^p spgyL$pApdp vy$L$pm_u [\rs
fdMpZp `R>u `Z NyS>fps_p ApprNL$ rhL$pk OV$p _\u
L$pNk_p kkv$ke Apdpfpd `V$g_y r_^_
rh^p_kcp_y rhkS>_ \sp L$V$gpe dlh_p ky^pfp Mpfc
NyS>fpsdp `uV$uku_u 14 _hu L$pgš i$ \i
_ipb^u Mpsy kq$e : 40 gpM $r`ep_p v$p$ `L$X$pep
NyS>fpsdp NyV$Mp `f rsb^ dyL$pi?
kfL$pf `pk depl_ cpS>_ epS>_p dpV$ `Z `kp _\u?
kfL$pfu MQ `y A_ krQh_ rhv$i gC S>hp_y cpf `X$y
ApW$ hj `R>u NyS>fps_u hkrs li R> L$fpX$
NyS>fps lpC L$pV$ : L$dQpfu_u bv$gu_u kp kfL$pf_ R>
kpfp$dp Ap hj L$v$pQ fL$pX$ bL$ `pL$ Esfi
dybC kp\_p fgehlpf V|$L$dp i$ \pe Ahu kcph_p
bpX$_u `funpdp `pk \hp lh 40 V$L$p šCi
dybC-Adv$phpv$ hQ L$v$pQ kpsdu Sy>gpC ky^u fgehlpf i$ _l] \C iL$
NyS>fpsdp dOfpA `pfp Mp^p
L$iycpC `V$g L$rb_V$dp _l] šX$pe?
L$gpk dp_kfphf_u eppdp NyS>fpsuAp ANkf
NyS>fps_y _pL$pqV$k kg L$f R> iy?
cpfsue V$uddp \p_ dmh_pf `pr\h_y blzdp_ L$fpey
NyS>fps, `Qhj}e epS>_p A_ $. 47,000 L$fpX$
_f dpv$u qv$lu_u dygpL$ps
NyS>fpsdp dOfp_u rhr^hs khpfu
v$rnZ NyS>fps_u ApW$ bL$p kpd aqfepv$ v$pMg
ipbpi Tp`qV$ep_u bl_p
byi kfL$pf_p r_dZ\u cfs `X$p AdqfL$p_p hpk
AkV$udp 12\u 15 V$L$p_p cpX$ph^pfp spmpC fp R>
NpduZ kNW$__u bl_pA rh^hp_ epe A`pep
L$`pk_p Mfua `pL$dp kh Mpsf_p kam epN
bfsfa \egp `ufTpv$p b^yAp iy L$l R>?
_f dpv$u_u sfav$pfu L$fsp L$pNku ANZuAp k`X$
NyS>fps_p rhp\}ApA lh `fpsdp S>hy _l] `X$
NyS>fps_u S>gpdp W$pku W$pku_ cfpsp L$v$uAp
NyS>fps_p rhrh^ rhspfpdp dOfp_y ApNd_
r_hr_p R>gp L$gpL$pdp rh^p_kcp krQh kpd QpS>iuV$
DpNp_ ApL$jhp NyS>fps kfL$pf_u _hu _urs
10du S|>_ Np^u_Nfdp L$pNk_p rhipm dpfQp
cpS>`dp dpv$urhfp^u lhp hQ L$Zd|rs_u dygpL$ps
NyS>fps_ gpNsu kflv$ `f L$pV$pmu hpX$_y L$pd TX$`u b_phhy fy
cpS>` L$pfpbpfu_u bW$L$dp _f dpv$u `f `spm `X$i
cpS>`dp ApsqfL$ hV$pm hQ S>_ L$Zd|rs_u NyS>fpsdygpL$ps
buń fpep `pk\u NyS>fps_p L$fpX$p $r`ep gZp R>
apef rbNX$_u L$pdNufu AkfL$pfL$ b_i?
rhk_Nfdp dm_pfu cpS>`_u bW$L$ dlh_u b_i
ey_u kcph_p\u v$rnZ NyS>fpsdp s kpbvy$
`pZu_p `pDQ : ksp Mfp `Z iy L$V$gp?
cpS>` eyhp dpfQp_ _f dpv$u_u S>$f _\u?
NyS>fps kfL$pf_u qsšfu Mpgu \C NC R>?
fpS>`hpmp afu cpS>`dp cmu S>i?
1960dp 40 eyr_V$, ApS> 953 eyr_V$
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Ap`Zp kpdprS>L$ kL$pfp
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g_rhr^ : dpNe_u cph_p
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pS>rg
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L$. gpg S>N_ dlsp pZgpg `V$g _V$hfgpg cphkpf



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