Scientists from the University of Oxford have opened up their COVID-19 vaccines for clinical trial recruitments as part of a 'rapid vaccine response' to the coronavirus pandemic.
The trial, a collaboration between the university's Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group clinical teams, will recruit up to 510 volunteers, who will receive either the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or a control injection for comparison.
The researchers, working in an 'unprecedented' vaccine development effort to prevent COVID-19, said they have started screening healthy volunteers (aged 18-55) from Friday for their upcoming trial in the Thames Valley Region of England.
"The Oxford team had exceptional experience of a rapid vaccine response, such as to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014. This is an even greater challenge,” said Professor Adrian Hill, Director of the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford.
"Vaccines are being designed from scratch and progressed at an unprecedented rate.
"The upcoming trial will be critical for assessing the feasibility of vaccination against COVID-19 and could lead to early deployment," he said.
The vaccine based on an adenovirus vaccine vector and the SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 spike protein is already in production but won't be ready for some weeks.
The team will, meanwhile, enrol healthy volunteers aged between 18-55, who, if they pass screening, will be the first humans to test the new vaccine, called ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.
The trial will provide valuable information on the safety aspects of the vaccine, as well as its ability to generate an immune response against the virus.
Interested individuals can volunteer to participate on the COVID-19 vaccine website.
Whilst the team will start screening people now to see if they are eligible to take part in the study, participants will not receive the vaccine for some weeks.
Detailed pre-clinical work is being done and the vaccine is being manufactured to clinical grade standard at the Clinical Biomanufacturing Facility at Oxford University.
The trial has been approved by United Kingdom regulators and ethical reviewers. Researchers are working as quickly as possible to get the vaccine ready to be used in the trial, which includes further preclinical investigations and production of a larger number of doses of the vaccine.
Professor Andrew Pollard, Chief Investigator on the study, said: "Starting the clinical trials is the first step in the efforts to find out whether the new vaccine being developed at Oxford University works and could safely play a central role in controlling the pandemic coronavirus that is sweeping the globe."
Scientists around the world are working hard to develop a vaccine to prevent COVID-19, but there is a lot to be done.
The Oxford team led by Professor Sarah Gilbert, Professor Andrew Pollard, Professor Teresa Lambe, Dr Sandy Douglas and Professor Adrian Hill started work designing a vaccine on January 10.
Professor Gilbert and team have previously developed a vaccine for another human coronavirus disease, which is Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and this has shown promise in early clinical trials.
The new vaccine is an adenovirus vaccine vector (ChAdOx1) and was developed at Oxford's Jenner Institute.
It was chosen as the most suitable vaccine technology for a SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccine as it can generate a strong immune response from one dose and it is not a replicating virus, so it cannot cause an ongoing infection in the vaccinated individual.
This also makes it safer to give to children, the elderly and anyone with a pre-existing condition such as diabetes.
Adenoviral vectors are a very well-studied vaccine type, having been used safely in thousands of subjects, from one week to 90 years of age, in vaccines targeting over 10 different diseases.
Professor Gilbert, lead researcher of the vaccine development programme, said: "Since the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014, my research team has been working on new approaches to vaccine development to protect the population of the world against an outbreak of infectious disease or a pandemic. We are now working with a much larger team to bring these plans to fruition."
At the same time as conducting the first clinical trial, production of the vaccine is being scaled up ready for larger trials, and potentially, future deployment.
By starting vaccine manufacturing scale-up immediately, the team can ensure that enough vaccine doses are available as soon as possible -- especially for National Health Service (NHS) workers, the elderly, and those with underlying health conditions -- if the trials prove that the vaccine is safe and effective.