The BJP, Congress and the Shiv Sena won one Lok Sabha seat each, while assembly segments threw up a similar mixed bag with results favouring ruling parties in several states as votes were counted on Tuesday for a crucial by-election contest across 13 states.
Polling for three parliamentary seats and 29 assembly constituencies were held on October 30, an exercise being seen as a barometer of the political mood in the country ahead of assembly elections in politically critical Uttar Pradesh as well as other states.
Though there was no discernible wave, some states stood out.
Voters in Assam and West Bengal, for instance, gave a decisive thumb's up to the ruling alliances.
In Himachal Pradesh, the ruling BJP lost all three assembly seats as well as the Mandi Lok Sabha seat to the opposition Congress.
Assembly by-elections were held in five seats in Assam, four in West Bengal, three each in Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya, two each in Bihar, Karnataka and Rajasthan and one seat each is in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Mizoram and Telangana.
Of the 29, the BJP had won in around half a dozen constituencies earlier, the Congress had nine, while the rest were with regional parties.
The ruling BJP-led alliance in Assam won all the five assembly constituencies where bypolls were held, with the saffron party bagging three seats and its ally United Peoples' Party Liberal emerging victorious in the two other, according to the Election Commission of India on Tuesday.
The BJP's Phani Talukdar, Rupjyoti Kurmi and Sushanta Borgohain retained their respective Bhabanipur, Mariani and Thowra seats which they had won in the assembly elections held earlier this year on tickets given by other parties but resigned after joining the saffron party.
Kurmi retained the Mariani assembly constituency for the sixth time, defeating Congress candidate Luhit Konwar by 40,104 votes while Talukdar won the Bhabanipur seat for the second time beating Sailendra Das of the grand old party by 25,641 votes.
Borgohain also retained the Thowra constituency winning by a margin of 30,561 votes over Raijor Dal's Dhaijya Konwar, who fought as an independent candidate.
The BJP's ally UPPL wrested the Gossaigaon constituency with its candidate Jiron Basumatary defeating Congress nominee Jowel Tudu by a margin of 28,252 votes while another party candidate Jolen Daimary beat his nearest rival, independent candidate Ganesh Kachary, by 57,059 votes in the Tamulpur seat.
The by-elections to these two constituencies were necessitated following the deaths of BPF and UPPL MLAs in Gossaigaon and Tamulpur respectively.
Kurmi, a firebrand leader of the tea-tribe community, had earlier won for five consecutive terms from Mariani on a Congress ticket but resigned from the party in June to join the BJP alleging that the party's national leaders do not listen to the voices of the workers at the grassroot level.
Borgohain had first won from Thowra on a Congress ticket in 2011 but lost the subsequent election in 2016. He went on to wrest the seat from the BJP's Kushal Dowari in 2021 but resigned from the Congress and the assembly in July citing "changed internal political atmosphere" within the party.
Talukdar had contested on an AIUDF ticket from Bhabanipur winning for the first time in the 2021 assembly polls after contesting unsuccessfully several times as an independent candidate in earlier assembly polls. He resigned from the AIUDF in August and joined the BJP.
With these results, the BJP's strength in the 126-member Assam assembly increased to 62 and UPPL's to eight. The other partner in the ruling coalition, Asom Gana Parishad, which had not fielded any candidate in this bypoll, has nine MLAs.
On the opposition bench, the Congress' strength is 27, AIUDF has 15 members, BPF three, the CPI(M) one and there is an Independent MLA as well.
The ruling YSR Congress on Tuesday retained the Badvel (SC) assembly seat in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh in the bye-election, securing a record margin of 90,533 votes, in a rather one-sided contest.
YSRC's Dasari Sudha trounced BJP's Panathala Suresh in the bypoll held on October 30.
She polled 1,12,211 votes (76.25 per cent), while her rival secured only 21,678 (14.73 per cent) as the ballots were counted on Tuesday.
Of the 2,15,292 total votes in the constituency, 68.38 per cent were polled. The bypoll was necessitated due to the death of sitting legislator Venkata Subbaiah in March.
The YSRC fielded his widow Sudha for the bypoll and she won by a record margin, though it fell short of the party's target of one lakh.
In 2019, Venkata Subbiah won by 44,734 votes.
The main opposition party TDP did not contest the bye-election.
Congress's P M Kamalamma polled just 6,235 votes and forfeited her deposit. A significant 2.48 per cent (3,650) voters preferred NOTA.
In a tweet, YSRC president and Chief Minister Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy thanked the Badvel voters for the resounding victory. He also complimented the winning candidate.
The ruling JD-U in Bihar on Tuesday retained both Tarapur and Kusheshwar Asthan seats, where bypolls were held on October 30.
In Tarapur, JD-U candidate Rajiv Kumar Singh defeated his nearest rival of the RJD, Arun Kumar Sah, by a slender margin of less than 4,000 votes, according to the Election Commission.
Singh polled 78,966 votes as against 75,145 of Sah.
Tarapur fell vacant following the death of JD-U MLA Mewa Lal Chaudhary.
The ruling party, earlier in the day, bagged the Kusheshwar Asthan seat by a comfortable margin of more than 12,000 votes.
JD-U's Aman Bhushan Hazari, the death of whose father had necessitated the by-election, polled 58,882 votes, while the RJD candidate Ganesh Bharti secured 47,184 votes.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Shiv Sena candidate Kalaben Delkar on Tuesday won the by-election to the Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lok Sabha seat with a comfortable margin of 51,269 votes, EC officials said.
While Kalaben Delkar (50), wife of former independent MP Mohan Delkar whose death necessitated the bypoll, garnered 1,18,035 votes, her closest rival, BJP's Mahesh Gavit, bagged 66,766 votes.
Congress candidate Mahesh Dhodi finished third with 6,150 votes.
The Congress and the Shiv Sena are ruling allies in Maharashtra, but they fought the bypoll separately.
Voting in the Scheduled Tribe (ST) reserved parliamentary seat took place on October 30 and counting was taken up on Tuesday morning.
Counting of votes was held in Silvassa city of Dadra and Nagar Haveli district, which is part of the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
The by-election was necessitated by the death of sitting MP Mohan Delkar, who won as an independent in the 2019 Lok Sabha polls by defeating then-sitting BJP MP Natubhai Patel by a thin margin of 9,001 votes.
Mohan Delkar had been with the Congress and the BJP at different times during his political career.
He allegedly hanged himself at a Mumbai hotel on February 22, 2021.
INLD leader Abhay Singh Chautala defeated the BJP's Gobind Kanda with a margin of over 6,700 votes in Haryana's Ellenabad assembly bypolls on Tuesday.
Congress candidate Pawan Beniwal finished third in the elections, the voting for which took place on October 30.
The Indian National Lok Dal candidate secured nearly 66,000 votes, officials said.
The bypoll was necessitated after Chautala in January resigned as the MLA from the seat in protest against the Centre's contentious farm laws.
While there were 19 candidates in the fray, most of them Independents, the main contest eventually turned out to be between Chautala and Kanda.
Gobind Kanda, the brother of Haryana Lokhit Party chief and MLA Gopal Kanda, joined the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party last month.
Gopal Kanda, the MLA from Sirsa, has extended support to the BJP-JJP government in Haryana.
Beniwal, who had unsuccessfully contested the previous Assembly polls against Chautala, recently switched over from the BJP to the Congress.
In a setback to the BJP in Himachal Pradesh, the opposition Congress won all three assembly seats of Fatehpur, Arki and Jubbal-Kotkhai and the Mandi Lok Sabha seat, where bypolls were held on October 30.
The Congress retained Fatehpur and Arki Assembly seats while it wrested Jubbal-Kotkhai seat from the BJP, according to poll results announced by the Election Commission on Tuesday.
In Mandi, former chief minister Virbhadra Singh's wife Pratibha Singh defeated BJP's Brigadier Khushal Thakur, a Kargil war hero.
In the 2019 parliamentary polls, BJP's Ram Swaroop Sharma had emerged victorious by a whopping 4,05,000 votes.
Congress candidates Bhawani Singh Pathania, Sanjay and Rohit Thakur have won from Fatehpur, Arki and Jubbal-Kotkhai assembly constituencies, respectively.
State Congress president Kuldeep Singh Rathore demanded the resignation of Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur on moral grounds after the BJP's defeat.
He told reporters that the Congress has won the "semi-final" and will also emerge victorious in the Assembly elections in December next year.
In what is being seen as a bittersweet result for the ruling BJP and Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai in Karnataka, the saffron party has won the Sindgi assembly segment, but lost the Hangal seat to Congress, in the bypolls held on October 30.
According to results announced by the Election Commission of India on Tuesday, Ramesh Bhusanur of BJP won in Sindgi seat by a margin of 31,185 votes, by securing 93,865 votes, while his closest rival Congress' Ashok Managuli secured 62,680 votes.
In Hangal, Congress's Srinivas Mane won by a margin of 7,373 votes, securing 87,490 votes, while his closest rival Shivaraj Sajjanar of BJP bagged 80,117 votes.
JD-S's Naziya Shakeel Ahmed Angadi from Sindgi and Niyaz Shaikh from Hangal came a distant third, by securing 4,353 and 927 votes respectively.
The bypolls for two seats was necessitated as they had fallen vacant, following the death of Sindgi JD-S legislator M C Managuli and BJP's C M Udasi from Hangal.
The BJP losing Hangal is seen as a setback to Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai, as it is the neighbouring constituency to his Shiggaon assembly segment in Haveri district, and that he had extensively campaigned there.
This was also the first major electoral challenge for Bommai, after taking charge as CM.
Congress leaders seemed to be satisfied with the party's performance in the bypolls, as it has succeeded in snatching away Hangal seat from the BJP, while improving its performance in Sindgi, where it was in the third spot after 2018 assembly polls.
An estimated 69.47 per cent voter turnout was recorded in Sindgi assembly constituency, while it was 83.76 per cent in Hangal segment during the October 30 voting.
A total of 19 candidates were in the fray in the two constituencies, including six from Sindgi and 13 from Hangal. Two candidates from Sindgi were women.
The BJP has snatched Jobat (ST) assembly constituency in Madhya Pradesh from Congress with the saffron party candidate Sulochana Rawat defeating her nearest rival Mahesh Patel by a margin of 6,104 votes in the bypoll, counting for which was held on Tuesday, officials said.
Rawat received 68,949 votes and Patel 62,845, officials added.
The Congress also won the bypoll to the Raigaon (SC) assembly constituency in Madhya Pradesh, with Kalpana Verma defeating her nearest rival, BJP's Pratima Bagri, by a margin of 12,290 votes.
Verma received 72,989 votes and Bagri 60,699, the officials added.
In the Prithvipur assembly seat in the Niwari district, Congress nominee Nitendra Singh Rathore went down fighting against the BJP's Shishupal Yadav, who won by a margin of 15,687 votes. Yadav bagged 82,673 votes and Rathore 66,986, another official said.
BJP candidate Gyaneshwar Patil on Tuesday won the bypoll from the Khandwa Lok Sabha constituency in Madhya Pradesh by defeating his nearest Congress rival, former MLA Rajnarayan Singh Purni, by a margin of 82,140 votes, a poll official said.
Patil got 6,32,455 votes, while Purni bagged 5,50,315 ballots.
Thus, the ruling party retained the seat albeit with a reduced margin.
The party fielded Patil, a former district panchayat president, by denying a ticket to Harshvardhan Chauhan, the son of sitting BJP MP Nand Kumar Singh Chauhan, whose death necessitated the bypoll, voting for which took place on October 30.
Nand Chauhan had won polls from the Khandwa Lok Sabha seat six times -- in 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004, 2014 and 2019 - and was a credible face of the party in the Nimar region.
However, the victory margin was reduced to 82,140 this time from 2,73,343 in 2019. In the Prithvipur assembly seat in the Niwari district, BJP's Shishupal Singh Yadav is ahead of his Congress challenger Nitendra Singh Rathore by 5,496 votes, trends showed.
Of the four seats for which byelections were held on Saturday, the Khandwa Lok Sabha constituency and Raigaon assembly seat were earlier held by the BJP, while Jobat and Prithvipur segments were with Congress.
A total of 48 candidates were in the fray for the bypolls held to four seats, necessitated due to the death of sitting MLAs and an MP.
The Congress on Tuesday retained the Deglur (SC) assembly constituency in Maharashtra's Nanded district with party nominee Jitesh Raosaheb Antapurkar defeating his nearest BJP rival Subhash Pirajirao Sabne by a margin of 41,917 votes in the byelection, as per the Election Commission.
Jitesh Antapurkar polled 1,08,840 votes while Sabne, a former Shiv Sena leader, could bag 66,907 votes.
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi candidate Uttam Ramrao Ingole has polled 11,348 votes in this bypoll which was held on October 30.
The bypoll was necessitated due to the death of Jitesh's father and sitting Congress MLA Raosaheb Antapurkar.
The NPP-led Meghalaya Democratic Alliance on Tuesday got a shot in the arm, as it clinched all three assembly seats where bypolls were held on October 30, an official said.
The National People's Party wrested Rajabala and Mawryngkneng seats from the Congress, while the United Democratic Party, a partner in the MDA government, emerged victorious in Mawphlang, Chief Electoral Officer FR Kharkongor said.
NPP's nominee in Rajabala, Md. Abdus Saleh, defeated his nearest Congress' rival Hashina Yasmin Mondal by a margin of 1,926 votes.
Mondal, whose husband Azad Zaman's demise led to the by-election, secured only 9,897 votes, while Saleh got 11,823.
UDP's Ashahel D Shira secured the third position with 7,247 votes, the CEO said.
Pyniaid Sing Syiem of the NPP bagged Mawryngkneng seat, defeating Congress' Highlander Kharmalki by a margin of 1,816 votes.
Syiem garnered 14,177 votes, while Kharmalki secured 12,361, according to the Election Commission Website.
Former national footballer Eugeneson Lyngdoh, who contested the bypoll to Mawphlang constituency on a UDP ticket, defeated his nearest rival KC Khyriem of the Congress.
Eugeneson, who lost his MLA father SK Sunn due to Covid-19 earlier this year, secured 13,285 votes, while the Congress' candidate got 8,884. National People's Party nominee Lamphrang Blah came third.
The by-elections to the two seats were necessitated due to deaths of Congress legislator David A Nongrum from Mawryngkneng and Independent MLA SK Sunn from Mawphlang.
"The people have made their choice by ensuring victory for our candidates Sh. Abdus Saleh in Rajabala constituency and Sh. Pyniaid Sing Syiem in Mawryngkneng constituency. This is a victory of our people. My gratitude to all those who contributed in this big win! Long live NPP!," Chief Minister Conrad K Sangma said on Twitter.
"People are aware of the development activities undertaken by our government. Today's results indicate that people want development," he told PTI.
With the bypoll results, the ruling NPP's strength will be 23 in the 60-member Meghalaya assembly, and the UDP will have eight. The BJP and the People's Democratic Front have two and four MLAs respectively.
Hill State People's Democratic Party has two members, the NCP and the Khun Hynniewtrep National Awakening Movement have one each. There are two Independent members. The opposition Congress' strength in the House reduced to 17 from 19.
The ruling Mizo National Front's K Laldawngliana won the Tuirial assembly seat in Mizoram with over 39 per cent of the votes against his nearest opponent Laltlanmawia of the Zoram People's Movement.
The ruling Congress on Tuesday won the bypolls to the Vallabhnagar and Dhariawad assembly segments in Rajasthan, pushing the opposition BJP to the third and fourth places there.
Before the bypolls, the Dhariawad seat was represented by the BJP and Vallabhnagar by the Congress.
With the win, the tally of the Congress in the 200-member Rajasthan assembly reached 108 against the BJP's 71 MLAs.
The BJP has accepted defeat in the bypolls, with its state chief Satish Poonia saying it depended on "local equations".
In Pratapgarh's Dhariawad, Congress candidate Nagraj Meena won by a margin of 18,725 votes.
Meena defeated his nearest rival and Independent candidate Thawarchand, according to the result declared by the Election Commission.
Nagraj and Thawarchand secured 69,819 (39.16 per cent) and 51,094 (28.66 per cent) votes, respectively.
BJP candidate Khet Singh stood third with 46,487 (26.08 perc ent) votes.
Meanwhile, Preeti Shaktawat defeated Rashtriya Loktantrik Party's candidate Udailal Dangi in Vallabhnagar by a margin of 20,606 votes.
Shaktawat received 65,713 votes and Dangi 45,107.
Dangi is a BJP rebel who contested as an RLP candidate.
Former BJP MLA and chief of the Janta Sena, Randhir Singh Bhindar, who contested as an independent candidate, stood third by securing 43,817 votes.
BJP candidate Himmat Singh Jhala got 21,433 votes.
Preeti Shaktawat is the wife of former MLA Gajendra Singh Shaktawat, who had died due to coronavirus.
BJP's Eatala Rajender, a TRS rebel and a former aide of Chief Minister K Chandrasekhar Rao, defeated his nearest rival Gellu Srinivas Yadav of the TRS in the Huzurabad assembly constituency by a margin of 23,855 votes, in what was billed as a prestige fight.
Trinamool Congress candidate for Shantipur assembly constituency Braja Kishor Goswami won the by-elections by 64,675 votes on Tuesday, an Election Commission of India (ECI) official said.
Goswami bagged 1,11,189 votes defeating BJP's Niranjan Biswas who garnered 47,167 votes, he added.
"This win is for the people of Shantipur. I thank them for helping me win the elections. Now, it's my turn to work for their well being. I will work as my party wants me to," Goswami told reporters after the results were declared.
The TMC bagged all the three other seats -- Gosaba, Dinhata and Khardaha -- in the by-elections held on October 30.