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lpd`S> > h^y kdpQpfp > dpshv$_p

...epf dp h^y hlpgu b_u S>su lphu šCA

20 S|>_, 2003

kyiugp Thfu

`ysL$ dpsp_ A`Z L$ep_u Ap `[s : dpf d_ drldphsu R>. OZp hjp `R>u ke gpey L$ ep ep iy d R>, ep d R>, ep dp R> S>. S>d ep ep NNp hl R> ep `rh S>m R>, Ad ep iy d lpe, ep dp lpe S> Ahy kduL$fZ Apdkspj dpV$ ip^u L$pY$y.

dp_p Ag`Tg` TpMp`pMp Qlfp rQdp AL$pegp R>. gpbp Qlfp, epd hZ, KQpC kpfu, kfMy `psmy ifuf _ sS>hu ApMp.

kp\u `lgy dfZ : X$pV$f_ ep gC S>hu `X$u lsu. sph dp`hp \fdprdV$f d|ey. lpCA ep\u buS> Qpgu S>hp_u L$rs. \fdprdV$f rhkfpC Ney, _ lp\ `lpmp \C Nep, \fdprdV$f awV$u Ney. dp S>fp Nyk \C. `Z dpf A Nykp\u ep ghpv$hp R>. dpf sp dp_p dfZ_y kyM dpZhy R>, epf $r`ep L$ ApW$-bpf Ap_p_y \fdprdV$f sd A $r`ep_u qL$ds `Z sV$gu S>.

Ahy S> buSy> dfZ : Of\u uS> Of v$iu v$hpMp_y. ep v$hp b_phhp c$u_p D`epN \pe. `pQ-kpX$p `pQ hfk_u Ddf. lp\dp s`gu Ap`u L$l, , fpM gC Aph (hpkZ kpa L$fhp). lz NC, c$u KX$u A_ lz _p_u, lp\ `lpQ _l]. ANpfp L$S>mu Negp, AV$g fpM S> v$Mpe. d sp c|kL$p dpep, _ Ly$dmp `N Nfd fpM\u v$pTu Nep. fX$pfpm, v$pX$pv$pX$, `Z dpA _p_u bl__p OpqX$epdp kyhpX$u, `N v$hp gNpX$u. v$pTu lsu, `Z OpqX$epdp k|hp_y. lSy>e l]Qpmsu dp_y rQ TpMy _\u \ey.

Ad b bl_p, lz dpV$u _ kydrs _p_u. b hQ Z hj_p afL$. AL$ S> \pmudp S>duA. L$fu_p b cpN `pX$u Apep. L$fu_u R>pg ep _p_u bl_ d|L$u, ep S> d d|L$u, L$ b bpSy> S>du_ Nv$u _ \pe. _p_udp kdep, L$ b^u S> L$fu _p_u bl_ MpC NC. Nyk \C `|R>ey, _p_u sy b^u L$fu MpC NC? S>fp hpf Q|` flu, `n`ps duW$p gpep, `R>u Av$f\u L$pCL$ L$y, kpQu hps L$lu v$hu šCA. bp_p bpmL$_u c|g, L$ X$lp`Z_ Ap`Z Ap`Zu S> r$\u šCA R>uA. bp A_ _p_u hQ_y hpey epv$ R>. ""s_ dpfu _p_u Ndsu S> _\u.'' dpV$p \ep `R>u kdey L$ `psp_u AL$_u AL$ v$uL$fu_ v$uL$fp_u A`npdp bu v$uL$fu Aphu lpe, _ Av$f_p AZNdp ANs`Z es \sp lpe, A_ `yfpZp kL$pf Adp r_rd lpC iL$. Apd dpkpm `Z v$uL$fp rh_p_y S> lsy. dpf dpdp, dpku, L$pL$p, apC, L$pC _l].

L$epipmpdp cZhp S>su. bpm`p\u S>$fu lsu, `Z bp_p V$pL$hp R>sp r`sp c|gu S>sp. AL$ qv$hk gphu_ ku^p L|$g Ap`hp Apep, _ rinL$ hpQhp L$y, ApMu L$X$L$X$pV$ AphX$su, `Z X$f gpep L$ ApMu L$X$L$X$pV$ hpQu S>Ci sp NpMZ`$u gpNi, AV$g AV$L$u AV$L$u hpQu. Ahp Ahp kv$c dpsp_y dfZ L$fu gJ Ry>. lpe, A\ue _ lpe epf dp h^y hlpgu b_u S>su lphu šCA.

_p_u bl__ fdpX$sp, Ly$Vy$buAp, Ap_v$ Mpsf A_ `S>hsp. A_ d_ `Z A_y A_yL$fZ L$fhp_y d_ \ey. A_ bpA L$y, bl_, Ap`Zu bl__ Ap`Zp\u Ahy _ L$fpe, _ Z A iv$p AL$v$d gpNZu_ `i} Nep. A hps dpf dpV$ L$pC ip kdu b_u NC. A bpgpegp iv$p kp\ \m _ L$pm dpfp rQdp rQ b_u AL$pC Nep R> `Z L$dp dp R>.

A `lgp _p_u bl_ `lg dpm\u `X$u Negu. _hp_ L$pfZ kX$L$_p QuQp `\f E`ku Aphgp. bl__ dpA KQL$u gu^u _ L$pC hpey _\u, Ad L$lu `pZu L$ bfa_p L$pC D`epN L$ep _l]. A fX$su bl__ Mpmpdp gC bW$gu dp_y e rQdp AqL$s R>. A_ Av$f C `lpQu li. s hpgpX$ `lpQsp_u kp\ S> bl_ budpf `X$u. ZL$ drl_p_u budpfu cpNhu, huk qv$hk bcp_ flu, dey `pdu A_ A `R>u huk qv$hk, drl_pdp _p_udp_p hpfp Apep. `pXy$fpN, ApS>_p Ar_rdep. `V$ X$pd `Z v$hX$pep. A S>Nrges A_ A^p ApQfpsu d _S>f šC. `psp_u AL$_u AL$ v$uL$fu _ bQ A AcL$ `ku NC. A_ A AcL$ kp\ S> Nep _p_udp.

A `R>u bp_p hpfp Apep. dey_p ApW$L$ qv$hk `lgp S> d hj bv$ey. kps `|fp L$fu ApW$dpdp hi L$ep. bpA L$lgy : bl_, ApS> spfu hfkNpW$, hfkNpW$_p Ap_v$, _ _ ES>hpegp_p fS>. A dp_y qv$g sp dp `pk S> lpe. buS> epe _ dm. epf `R>u S>dqv$hk ES>hpep R>, `Z _ ES>hpegpdp S> Ddp_p A_ych L$ep, Ahp L$v$u \ep _\u.

dpsp_p Arsd qv$hk lsp A sp L$pC_ S> Mbf _lpsu. V$u.bu.hpmp_u `pk S>hpe _l]. A_ dp_y qv$g _ fy. b^p_ ApOp`pR>p šC, d_ `pk bpgphu, dp\ lp\ afhu L$y, ""bl_ spf lh Al] S> flhp_y R>.'' `\pfudp bkpX$u s hX$ugpA šC gu^y. _ Nykp L$fu d_ ep\u MQu gu^u. Ad_ le sp dpfy rls S> hkgy. `Z be Apdp_u A^|f`_u sX$`_ L$pZ Z? lp, d_ AL$ hpf A_u bp\dp kdpC S>hp dey lps sp A `fd kyM_y dfZ dpf le S>X$pC Ney lps. Mpgu lep_p AL$ M|Zp R>gpR>g lps.

dpf hpgpX$ flu cZhy Ahy bpA S> _$u L$ey lsy. r`sp_ v$pv$p kpQhu _l] iL$, A L$pfZ dpsp_p dpku `pk ER>fu. Z NyS>fpsu cZu. v$k `|fp _ ArNepfd hfk ipmp R>pX$u. AV$g d__ M|b AL$gy gpNsy. d_ kdL$n dpV$ sfksy. A dpsp_p dpku AcZ, gpNZu rkhpe L$pC `| _l] Ad_u `pk. Ad L$lhsp _ S> sm`v$p iv$p hp`fsp, A kprle_p NZpe, D`epNdp Aph Ahp. ""bl_ `lp d|L$hp sp L$C lp S>Np dm, `Z hps L$fhp L$\ qv$g _u dm.'' ""tS>v$Nudp ApR>p hfTpmp šep R>?'' Ap`Z `|R>uA sp A\ kdhu _ iL$. `Z A b^y kpcmsp dpfu kdn L$pC ApNhu kr$ MX$u \su _ d_ k_ \C S>sy.

dpsp_ Ns \ep_ 1928\u 1990- `|fp bpkW$ hj \ep. dey_p bu hj hS>_p kp\ dpkpm_y Of Ahfhp Nep epf S> gpNZu \egu A AL$ L$pedp es L$fu R>. `Z AL$ `ysL$dp\u L$pC hs_u rhr^dp bp_p lspnf dep. A ApW$ hj_u Ddfdp _ L$pC `pL$uV$, _ L$pC L$bpV$. hpgpX$-kyfs Aphhy _ S>hy. _ kpkf `fZu_ NC epe Of bv$gpep L$ep. AL$ hpf hfkp `lgp dybC flhp Apep. $d gu^u. afu kyfs Nep. hjp `R>u v$uL$fp `fZu Nep, `R>u afu dybCdp r_hpk r_rs \ep. R>sp A QbfMu lSy> kQhpC flu R>. khpf_p L$pNm kpS>e epL$ dyL$pC e, _ lp\ _ Aph. A\u Ap lspnf_y, _ s kQhpep_y d|e dpf d_ A_L$Nτ R>. Ape `Z R>.

g_ ghpep. s S>dp_pdp d hR>pA `kv$ L$fgu e[s dpV$ kNpAp_p rhfp^ lsp. AV$g \C AV$gu A`dpr_s L$fu A_ d A\ gu^p, dp _\u, AV$g S> Ap b^p ApS> Ry>ˡ$ dpA bpg R>. Ad_p ANs apev$p, _yL$kp_ Av$f lsp S>. dpkpm_u A_ r`sp_u hpfkv$pf AL$_u AL$ v$uL$fu. A š `psp_p NpX$p, Nbgp kp\ Aph sp R>pL$fu _ `kp be Aph A bp AL$ _pv$p_ R>pL$fuA K^u hpmu A kl_ L$fhy dyL$g bey.

dpfp kpkf dpfp g__u eps S>dsu lsu. qfhpS> dyS>b dpfp hX$ugp A epsdp S>dhp _ Aphu iL$. s dpfp kb^ e, eps_ hlhpf S>dhp Apep. _ qfhpS> dyS>b lz `p_buX$p hlQhp _uL$mu epf Qpf hpf bp_u dpku_u v$uL$fu_ dpku L$lu_ b|d `pX$u, R>sp _uQy šC Nep. KQy šC `p_ _ gu^y. Ap b^u hpsdp L$dp dp S> lsu.

g__ qv$hk ApMp qv$hk L$pd `lpey, kpS> g_ `lgp _dτ (g_ `lgp_y dp\pbpm _p_) L$fhp_p kde \ep. `Z g__u L$pC lpi _lpsu. `lgp \sy L$ dpf iy Nydphhp_y R> L$ fX$hy Aph? š kpkf S>sp fX$hy _ Aph sp gpL$p iy L$li? `Z _dτ L$fsp dp M|b kpcfu _ fX$hy S> i$ \ey s Apky_p ^p^ M|V$p S> _l].

Qpv$ hj_u Ddf. ApMp qv$hk_p \pL$. kNp_ ep Y$pL$hp NC. sp L$l Adpfu cpZS> sp dfu NC. g_hpmu R>pL$fuA Ap b^y kpcmhy `X$, epf A_pdp g__p DdN ep\u V$L$?

r`spA g__u tQsp L$fu, L$`X$p bp_p dmi. `Z S>d_u `pk lsp sApA dpey L$ afu Aphi epf Ap`uiy AV$g dpfu `pk `kp_u S> L$pC kNhX$ lsu Adp\u khp $r`ep_u L$pV$_ kpX$u kpfu dmsu Ad cNu L$fu kpkf gC NC. `rsA sfs S> L$p rh_p, bfdp\u kpX$u gphu Ap`u.

dp rh_p kpkfp-r`ef_p glphp, v$uL$fu_u dpOpC-kpOpC L$pZ L$f! kuds hMs L$ \d ksp__p S>d hMs dp_u L$V$gu S>$f lpe! fkpCep-OpV$u_ iy Mbf `X$! iy Ap`hy _ iy _ Ap`hy? d_dp lpi lsu L$ d S> ApR>` cpNhu A dpfu v$uL$fu _ cpNh. `Z kšNp L$pC Ahp kŮep L$ dpfu A lpi `Z Ly$v$fs `|fu _ \hp v$u^u.

L|$g\u dip_ blz v|$f _l]. Ry>$udp bpfudp Ecu flu A qv$ipdp šep L$fy. Z dp EW$u_ Aphi Ahp vy$ \pe Ahy KX$ KX$ \pe. u ^pfZdp dpqML$ `funpdp `Qdlpg rS>gp_p spgyL$p `|R>gp, epf sp Z S> lsp : Np^fp, L$pgpg _ v$plpv$. `Z _ AphX$y. d_dp b^y S> A`$. _ AphX$p AV$g _p`pk S> \Ci. Ahp epg _l] L$ \pXy$ _ AphX$ sp `pk sp \hpe. Ap cedp Ofdp `|R>hpdp Apey. L$pNm hpQsp AphX$? d L$y L$$p AphX$ A_ L$pNm hpQsp AphX$. `R>u Mbf `X$u L$ kpkf S>C kyMvy$:M_p L$pNm gM AV$gy R>pL$fu dpV$ bk. _p`pk \Ciy A ce cZhp_u rS> _ L$fu. Ad_ L$ d_ ep Mbf lsu L$ dpV$p \C OZp L$pNm bNpX$hp_p R>.

dp_y AL$ rQ. S>_p_p ^prdL$ hfOpX$pdp, DR>pdZu bpgu, rhV$pqfepdp iZNpfu, bpmL$p bkpX$. (Apbg.) d_ kav$ $` rkL$_y T|gT|ghpmy pL$, dp\ ey hghV$_u V$uL$u kgdp cfgu V$p`u _ O|V$Z ky^u_p kav$ dpń `lfphgp. rbgLy$g q$re_ gpNsu lpCi `Z dpsp_ d_ `psp_p ksp_ dpV$ A_pMu dpesp S> lpsu li.

dp_p dey_ qv$hk dp ^prdL$ kpcmhp BR>su lsu. S>_ ^d_y Z_pf cpC `qfrQs_ bpgpep. fpӡ ArNepf ky^u kpcey, cpC_ KO QX$u'su. bpA L$y, \pXy$ kcmphp _! cpCA L$y, bl_, lh L$pg. L$p_ Mbf, L$pg `X$hp_u S> _lpsu. dpYy$ g|R>hp L$V$L$p lp\dp gu^p _ dp\y Y$pmu v$u^y, Z ed ApiuL$ fpl šC bW$p lsp. L$hy kfk dey!

d_ b^y `su Nep `R>u, ib_p v$i_ L$fhp gC Nep. A v$k-huk kL$X$, d A bpSy> S>hp MQphp dpX$y, `Z L$v$pQ X$fu J Ad kd, d_ dey `pdgu dp_ šhp_u d_cfu sL$ _ dmu. d_ d|Y$ \C Ney lsy. ep AL$ hS>_ `pk gC S>C bkpX$u lsu. sAp bpep, ""dp dfu NC R>, R>sp R>pL$fu fX$ R>?'' A kpcmu dpfu ApMdp Apky S>$f Aphu Nep. `Z cL$X$p spZu fX$hp_y _ bey. d_ kph k|_y lsy. s qv$hk kpS> armepdp AL$ S>Z_p ApV$gp_p `Nr\e L|$sfp_u `pk S>C_ bW$u. s Of_p dpA L$y, ""dp rh_p_u bp`X$u Z L|$sfy _ `ps L$pC Sy>v$p S> _\u Ahu fus bW$u R>.''

Apriepmp`τ _ ce d_dp Of L$fu Nep. AL$ hpf X$f_p dpep fpӡ Quk `pX$u EW$u. R> sph \ep _ dNS> Mku Ney. v$pZpv$pfp L$pC L$ey lpe sp Mbf _\u, `Z L$`X$p aL$u v$su, lksu, spmuAp `pX$su, A b^y v$hp\u dV$y. S>dZ dpfu bp, bl_, v$pv$u_u QpL$fu L$fu lsu, Ad_p dp\ lze `X$u. cNhp_ Ad_y F>Z Q|L$hhp_p \pX$p Ahkf Apep, `Z MfMf sp F>Z L$v$u aX$psy S> _\u. `Z A qv$hkpdp _$u L$ey L$ X$fhp\u NpX$p \C S>hpe AV$gu lv$ X$fhy _l]. _ d A^pfpdp S>hp_p epN L$fu, X$f tS>v$Nucf dpV$ su gu^p. d_ Ahy \C Negy L$ L$pC sfa\u \sp Aepe kpd dp_ flu Aepe klu ghp. L$pfZ Ap`τ L$pC _\u. A_u Qfdkudp Aphsp d__ sepf L$ey. L$pC _\u A\u iy? cg L$pC _ lpe. `Z Aepe kl_ _ L$fhp. A_p rhhL$\u S>hpb hpmhp. AL$ qv$hk kpcmu gC v$k qv$hk vy$:Mu \hy A_p L$fsp rsL$pf L$fu Adp\u dys \C S>hy.

dpfu dpsp ded hN_p rs[W$s r`sp_u `yu, _p_p_y hug hpQsp ey L$ 1903dp S>d. _ _p_pA hug L$ey epf dp R> drl_p_u lsu. 1920dp dpfp S>d _ 1928dp dpsp_y dey, AV$g Qphuk hfk_u A_u Ddf lpC iL$. bu_u `pk kpcmgy L$ d_ cZphhp_u blz lpi lsu, suh BR>p lsu. L$v$pQ A `ps h_peygf apB_g ky^u cZu lsu `Z A_u A^|fu AjZp A dpfp pfp `|fu L$fhp dpNsu lpe _ A bmhf BR>p_y fkpeZ Ncdp kp`X$y. A_y S> S> L$pC lpe A S> lz `pdu Ry> Ad Asf_u p\u dp_y Ry>.

dpshv$_p rhcpN_p Ae gMp hpQhp Al] [gL$ L$fp


sdpfp dpV$

rd_ dpL$gp

kfm rV$

Ap`_p Arcpe







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