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lpd`S> > h^y kdpQpfp > dpshv$_p

by_

31 eyApfu, 2003

fdZgpg šiu

dpfp S>d dpfp dpkpm rlf`yfp (sp. rh`yf, D.Ny.)dp \egp. Ofdp b^p A_ "by_' ("bl_') L$lsp AV$g lz `Z _p_`Z\u A_ "by_' L$lsp \egp. lh Adv$phpv$dp dpfp Of_p b^p, dpfp `p k|_ kds, kp Ad_ "bp' L$lu kbp^ R> AV$g lz `Z Ad_ "bp' L$lhp_p glphp gJ Ry> `Z "by_' kbp^_ dpY$ QX$u Ney R>.

"by_'_p hcph gpNZuiug. \pX$p $p^ `Z Mfp. šL$ Aepf Qyhpsf hj A OZp ApR>p \C Nep R>. lz dpspr`sp_p AL$_p AL$ `y- AL$_y AL$ ksp_. dpkpmdp `Z Z bl_p hQ lz AL$ S> cprZep, AV$g hX$_Nf (dpfy hs_) A_ rlf`yfp (dpfy dpkpm) b_ \m lz M|b gpX$L$pX$dp ER>fgp. "by_' d_ hpke\u kcpm `Z L$pC hpf d\u`pL$ `Z Ap`!

dpkpmdp Adpf S>du_ A_ Apbp Mfp. AL$ hpf Qpdpkpdp lz Apb Negp. ep kp` _uL$ep. lz ep Nep S> L$d Ad L$lu by_ d_ dpfgp A d_ epv$ R>. $p^ QX$ AV$g spap_ L$ey lpe sp dpf `Z `X$. `R>u A_ `sphp \pe A_ `ps S> L$l L$ "d_ epf Nykp Aph epf spf ApOp`pR>p \C S>hy.' Apde L$pC_ dp\ vy$:M Aphu `X$y lpe, L$pC L$fyZ OV$_p b_u lpe sp A_u ApMdp Apky Aphu e. `Z s fpsg rbgLy$g _l]. tlds Ap`. hcph khv$_iug, `Z h_ sfa_p ArcNd bpqL$. _p_`Z\u d_ gpep L$ey R> L$ d_ bpqL$ hpfkp dpsp sfa\u dep R> A_ gpNZuiugsp r`sp sfa\u.

r`sp sp cNhp__p dpZk. Ad_ epfe $p^ L$fsp d šep _\u. Ad_ šsphs Apv$f E`S> Ahu Ad_u dyM_u fMpAp. ndpiugsp Ad_p lpX$dp. rhfp^u L$ vy$d__ `Z d_\u ndp Ap`u v$. L$pC_y b|fy L$v$pr` BR> _l]. `lgp kfL$pfu p\rdL$ ipmpdp rinL$ lsp. `Y$u v$f `Y$u\u NpdW$u ipmp Qpgu Aph. dpfp v$pv$p_p Ahkp_ `R>u NpdgpL$pA kfL$pfu _pL$fudp\u fp_pdy Ap`u NpdW$u ipmp kcpmhp_p ApNl L$ep. sdZ fp_pdy Ap`u 1gu ApNV$, 1928_p fpS> ipmp frS>V$f L$fphu. (Ap AL$-ApW$-A$phuk Ad_ dpV$ M|b S> dlh_p qv$hk lsp. r_ipm rhi hps L$fhp_u \pe epf Ap spfuM AQ|L$ sd_p dpY$ Aph. d_ `Z A fus epv$ flu Negu.)

lh kfL$pfu ^pfZ ipmp Qpghp dpX$u. s bu rinL$p fpL$u ipmp Qgphsp. v$p_ dmhu ipmp_y dL$p_ `Z b^pey. ipmp Ad_y h_ lsu. s kQpgL$ bep `Z Aep`_L$pe R>pX$y _l]. Adp Ad_ M|b fk `X$sp. hph\pdp sd_ Ap bpdp\u dys L$fhp ipmp b^ L$fhp d Oτ kdhgp, `Z "dpfp Nep `R>u sd b^ L$fš' Ad L$lsp. A dpZ gNcN Ahkp_ ky^u sdZ ipmp Qgphgu. `Z ipmp_u _p_udpV$u ApV$uO|V$uApdp A_ buń b^p ephlpqfL$ L$pdpdp "by_' S> Ad_u fZpd|rs lsu. A_L$ bpbspdp s Ad_ kgpl Ap`su, Ad_p b^p L$pdp L$fu v$su, r`sp_ rlkpbqL$spb L$iy aph _l]. ipL$ ghp Nep lpe sp`Z \pX$p `kp fspdp `pX$sp Aph.

rinL$p_p `Npfp b^y "by_' S> L$f. r`sp sp blpf\u S> L$pC gph s b^y bp_ kp`u v$. kOmp hluhV$ bp `pk. s hluhV$ Aes QpL$kpC\u L$f. kpdp dpZk_u dyL$gu_p kss rhQpf L$f. L$pC_ L$iu AX$QZ _ `X$ A_p epg fpM. L$fL$kf `Z A_u S>. A_ R>sp klS> `Z L$S|>kpC _l]. AL$ iv$dp L$lhy lpe sp rhhL$byq A_pdp khp`fu. Ap rhhL$byq_ L$pfZ `psp_u ApSy>bpSy>_p dpZkpdp epf A_p Acph L$ ApR>` Sy>A epf klS> AL$mpC EW$. A_u V$uL$p `Z L$f. `psp_p AphX$s_p L$pC hMpZ L$f sp A_ Nd. bp_u Ap ehlpfLy$imsp_ L$pfZ ApSy>bpSy>_p `X$piuAp_u `Z A kgplL$pf b_u Negu. A hMs oprs_y šf cpf. oprsdp L$pC _ Ecp \ep lpe sp ApNhp_p L$l "drZbl__ `|R>p.' A_u ehlpfLy$imsp A_ X$lp`Zdp `Z kp_ p. r`efdp `Z L$pC _ `fh v$pv$p, dpku L$ dpdp A_u kgpl gsp.

A_ Ofdp L$pdL$pS>dp `Z AV$gp S> fk. b^y OfL$pd s L$f A_ kyOX$ fus L$f. hR>sp_p ApNl cpf. fkpC `Z kfk b_ph. kp Ap_v$\u Mpe. ApS> hph\pdp A_p\u fkpC \C iL$su _\u `Z L$pC hpf L$pC hp_Nu AZ b_phu lpe sp b^p hpv$`|hL$ Mpe. dpfp `yp-bp^ A_ N^h sp ApS> bpA b_pey R> Ad L$lu kpv$_u fus s ApfpN. `psp_u fkpC L$pC hMpZ sp M|b S> Nd. AL$ A_e Ap_v$-kspj_u fMpAp dyM `f R|>`u _ fl.

S>hu fkpC b_phhpdp A_u AphX$s Ahu S> s S>dhp_u ipMu_. R>sp b^p_ S>dpX$u_ S>d. L$pCL$ ApRy> lpe sp kpdp_ Mbf `Z _ fl A fus epN L$f. ApS> X$peprbV$uk_ L$pfZ A_ Mphpdp OZp rhr^r_j^p R> `fsy kpfy kpfy S>dhp_p A_p ipM Ahp _ Ahp S> fp R>.

"by_' TpTy cZgp _l] `Z khpv$u A_ k_d^yf v$p`e_p Apv$i sdZ Qqfsp\ L$fu bspep. dpfp r`spu_u R>gu dpv$Nudp sdZ sd_u MX$`N S> khp L$fu A AL$ OZu rhfg hsy lsu. r`sp_y dey A_p Mpmpdp \ey A_ R>L$ ky^u- bp`p L$V$gpe qv$hk bcp_ fp- khp L$fhp_p dpL$p dep s_p kspj Z L$ lh A_u dpV$u d|X$u lpe Ad A_ych.

frhhpf 3 dpQ, 1974_p fpS> `|e r`spu_y Ahkp_ \ey. bp AL$gp `X$u Nep. R>sp sdZ Adpfp hs_ hX$_Nfdp flhp_p ApNl fpep. \pX$p kde s hX$_Nf fp. dpfp dpV$ubp (L$pL$u, _pd Dbl_)_u R>gu Ah\pdp khpQpL$fu L$fu, s `Z NyS>fu Nep. bp_u srbes `Z šCA Ahu flsu _l]. Ad_u d_ tQsp flsu. Ahpf_hpf sd_u Mbf L$pY$hp lz hX$_Nf S>sp.

hjp `lgp sd_ dprsep_y Ap`fi_ L$fphgy. sd_p lr_ep_p Ap`fi_ hmp (A hMs r`sp leps lsp.) r`sp A_ lz kfMp S> _hk. Ly$Vy$buS>_p_y Appk_ šL$ dpVy$ lsy. Ap`fi_ hMs dpfp cpZp X$p. ArS>s v$h r\eV$fdp lpe sp kpfy Ahu b^p_u BR>p. `Z `R>u sp ArS>s `Z _hk \C Negp. dy. DdpiL$fcpC Ap`fi_ hmpA r\eV$fdp lpS>f flgp A_ Ahpsf blpf Aphu r`sp_ b^y ldMd lphp_p kL$s Ap`sp epf r`sp_p dyM_u fMpAp lz hpQsp!

cyL$`p\u A Ap`fi_ r_rh_ kpfu fus `pf `X$gy `Z X$peprbV$uk A_ Ae _p_udpV$u sL$guap_ L$pfZ A_y ifuf TpL$mTuL$gy flsy. s Adv$phpv$dp Adpfu kp\ fl sp Ad_ tQsp _ fl. dpfp dpV$p `y bp^ A hMs kpfpcpC L$rdL$kdp hX$pv$fp _pL$fu L$fsp lsp. s `Z Ahpf_hpf d_ bp_ Adv$phpv$ gC Aphhp_y gep L$fsp. dpfu BR>p sp lsu S>. M|b ApNl L$fu kdhu sd_ lz Adv$phpv$ gC Apep. hX$_Nf_y Of Mpgu L$ey A_ cpX$ Ap`u v$u^y.

bp Adv$phpv$ Apep. d_ M|b r_fps \C. `Z hX$_Nf_p sd_p `X$piuAp, sd_p kdN `qfhi sp S>sp S> fp! sd_u c|rddp\u d sd_ dpfp ANs hp\ Mpsf, Ap fus up-root L$ep A dpfy `Ngy L$V$g Ai hpS>bu lsy A rhi dpfp d_dp kv$l fp L$ep R>. `Z r`spu_p Ahkp_ `R>u dpfu `pk L$hm dpfu bp S> lsu, A_ A_ dpfu _S>f kdn fpMhp_u BR>p_ lz fpL$u _ iep.

r`spu_p Ahkp_ `R>u bp S> dpfy rhpd\p_ R>. hX$_Nfdp r`sp Abp dpsp_u khp L$f. hi`f`fpNs fus Ap dqv$f_u Ad khp L$fsp. r`spu kpS> dqv$f\u Apep lpe, s, lz, bp A_ dpfp dpV$ubp (ANpD S>d_p DgM L$ep s L$pL$u, S> Adpfp cNp flsp) kp\ bku S>duA. Ap e cygpe Ad _\u. bp dpfu M|b L$pm g. ApS> A$ph_ hj `Z d iy Mp^y-`u^y, dpfu srbes L$d R> hNf d_ `|R>. dpv$p `Xy$ sp bp^p fpM A_ A qv$hkpdp S>fp rhij `| L$f!

Apde ^prdL$sp A_p lpX$dp. `|khpdp OZp hMs \pe. ArNepfi, `|_d, Qpsydpk, Ae OZp hs L$f. dqv$fdp e. D`hpk_p qv$hk L$\p hpQ. dlpcpfs, fpdpeZ A_ cpNhs_u OZu ApepreL$pAp A_ epv$. L$pC hps _uL$mu lpe sp sfs Ap b^p ^dN\pdp\u $psp L$l. Nusp_p `pW$ `Z s r_erds L$fsp. `fsy op_ L$fsp c[s A_u L$rs_ h^y A_yL|$m. `pgMudp_p v$h_ s kpnps cNhp_ dp_.

hjp `lgp L$pL$pkplb_y "dfZepp' hpey epf Adp_u ^dpA Akf L$fgu `Z A_y d|s $` sp šhp dey bp_u ^dQepdp. Ap Ap[sL$sp A_ CfpA S> A_ V$L$phu fpMu R>. _p_`Z\u dpfp `f S> ^dkL$pfp `X$p A bp_ L$pfZ Ad lz šJ Ry>. A\u 1968dp ^d A_ ^dkprle rhi_p gMp_p kNl "Acukp' d NV$ L$ep epf A bp_ A`Z L$fsp d_ S> `[s S>X$u s Ap :

Aey qS>h, AQy s S>dkL$pfv$pu_.

A_u ^prdL$sp dp `|khpdp `eps _ \su. hcph `fNSy>. `X$pidp ApSy>bpSy> L$pC dpvy$kpSy> lpe sp A_u kcpm ghu, A_ MhX$phhy-r`hX$phhy A_ M|b Nd. A fus AZ OZp Nfubp_u khp L$fu Apiuhpv$ dmhgp. Mpk epv$ Aph R> AL$ v$gku X$pku. A r_fp^pf rh^hp, Adpfp v|$f_p Ly$Vy$b_u. v$gku X$pku bp kp\ `lgp bpgsp _l] sd R>sp A_p AsL$pm bpA A_y L$pC fZu^Zu _l] lphp\u A_p bpghp kpd šep hNf A_u khp L$fgu. Aphp sp L$V$gpe dpZkp_ A dv$v$$` \egp. Aphp khpL$pep\u Ad_u AsNs ^prdL$sp_ hm QX$sp.

bp Apd sp ApS> kyMu R>. AZ `y_p `y A_ `y_u `yu_ fdpX$p. b `yh^|Ap Ofdp Aphu, h__u A_L$ sX$L$uR>peX$u šC, `psp_p NZgp dpYy$ afhu bW$p R>sp d_dp vy$cph _ kep. ps `qf[\rs_ huL$pe NZu kdp^p_`|hL$ hhp_y NpW$ey. rkps_u bpbsdp kdp^p_ L$fhp_y A_p hcphdp _l] `Z AZ Oτ kdp^p_ L$ey R> A lz τ Ry>. ANpD_p L$pCL$ ApL$fp A_ suMp hcph_ bv$gu_ s rh_dsp_u d|rs b_u NC R>. Of_p kp_ lz L$lz Ry> : bp sp ApS> R> _ L$pg _ lpe, Ad_p Apiuhpv$ A dpV$u hsy R>. lz S> L$pC Ry> A Ad_p Apiuhpv$\u Ry>. `fsy dpep_y pbe Ahy R> L$ kp kp_p sp_dp ds fl.

bAL$ hj `lgp cfs _peL$ Of Apep. kprle D`fps apV$pNpaudp `Z Ad_ hs fk. L$l : sdpfp apV$p ghp R>. d bp_p apV$p `Z ghp_y k|Qey. apV$pdp s Apblwb NV$ \C R>. kav$ kpX$udp OJhZp Qlfp Z h__p A_ychp_ rstbrbs L$f R>. `Z lh dpY$p `f L$fQguAp `X$hp dpX$u R>. R>sp h__p kspj AL$b^ fp R>. h__p AL$dp Ap_v$ Ly$Vy$b_ kyMu šhp_p A_ v$hkhp L$fhp_p fp R>.

Ofdp _p_pdpV$p kp L$pC_u L$pm ghp_p A_p hcph _p_pdpV$p kNpA ldip es \sp fl R>. \pX$p hjp `lgp d dL$p__p D`gp dpm b^pep. Qpgy bp^L$pd d Adpfp L$pV$pV$f afMp__ (lh h.) L$lgy L$ dpf D`f bp dpV$ AL$ `|_p $d L$fhp R>. sdZ kfk b_pep. bpA Ap $ddp AL$ dqv$f S> b_phu v$u^y R>. khpf\u b`pf ky^u s Ap dqv$fdp S> lpe R>. s cgp A_ Ad_u `| cgu. `Z lSy> ddsp ApR>u \C _\u. _p_pdpV$p v$fL$_u s L$pm fpM, L$pZ Apey, L$pZ Ney, blpf\u L$pC ip dpV$ Apey lsy hNf_u `|R>`fR> L$f. bgL$ Ad L$lhy h^y epe R> L$ kkpf A_ `fdpdp hQ_y ܥs Ad_p ApQfZdp\u c|kpC Ney R>. A b_ Z AL$$` \C Nep R>. S> d `fdpdp e hl A S> d Ly$Vy$buS>_p sfa Y$m R>. b^u d_u gugp A_ d_p `pfphpf R>. rhkhpv$dp Adp ApNmu e R>, A_ R>sp epL$ ij fl R>. A_ L$d_u Nrs L$ L$pm_u gugp Nd s _pd Ap`p, `Z A R>, L$v$pQ h__y h$` S> Ahy R>. L$pC kcp_ op_r$\u _l] `Z h__p A_ychp_p r_QpX$$` A_ klS> cyp\u bp hpsrhL$sp_p huL$pf L$f R> A_ iprs A_ kspj kp\ h R>.

Aphu R> dpfu "by_'. A_p šV$p S>X$hp dyL$g R>. cNhp__ sp Ap`Z šep _\u, `Z A_u ddesp_y, rhc|rsdp_y v$i_ dpspr`spdp \ey R>, sp `R>u Ap`Z dpn ip dpV$ dpNhp?

dpshv$_p rhcpN_p Ae gMp hpQhp Al] [gL$ L$fp


sdpfp dpV$

rd_ dpL$gp

kfm rV$

Ap`_p Arcpe







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