Matthew Hayden top-scored with 177 and fellow opener Justin Langer compiled 111 on Sunday as Australia set West Indies a daunting 418 runs to win the fourth and final Test.
The home team then made a solid start, surviving 22.1 overs to reach 47 without loss, before bad light curtailed play for the day. Devon Smith was not out 21 with Chris Gayle on 19.
Hayden and Langer had put Australia in a commanding position with a first-wicket partnership of 242 before West Indies, led by Mervyn Dillon who took four wickets, bowled the tourists out for 417.
Both teams scored 240 in their first innings.
Despite their fightback, West Indies will have to score their highest ever fourth innings total against Australia, who lead the series 3-0, to prevent the visitors from becoming the first side to achieve a clean sweep in the Caribbean.
The highest fourth innings score West Indies have achieved against Australia was 352 in Sydney in 1969. West Indies totalled 311 for nine to win the third test in Bridgetown in 1999.
"Four hundred and seventeen runs is a lot for anyone to chase," said Hayden. "We've got the best bowling attack in the world, there's little doubt about that, and I think the West Indies will have to bat out of their skins to beat that total."
Earlier, Hayden survived two chances before he reached his 14th Test century.
He was dropped on 47 by captain Brian Lara at first slip off Omari Banks on Saturday and had another let off on 88 when Devon Smith's attempted run out just missed the stumps.
Langer brought up his 15th century shortly after Hayden, but when he reached 111 he edged Chris Gayle to Lara at first slip.
Wicketkeeper Adam Gilchrist was sent in at number three but made only six before he was caught by Marlon Samuels off Banks after the ball ricocheted off wicketkeeper Ridley Jacobs's shoulder.
West Indies made another breakthrough when Banks and Samuels again combined to remove Martin Love for two on the last ball of the morning session.
But Hayden continued his onslaught after lunch, hitting a huge six off Banks on to the roof of the Richie Richardson stand before he smashed the next delivery down the ground for four.
Dillon then bowled Darren Lehmann, who got an inside edge on to his stumps for 14, before Hayden was run out after Australia captain Steve Waugh played a shot to backward point, and Carlton Baugh made a direct hit after Hayden had been sent back by Waugh.
"I called 'yes' and my momentum was going forward and he said 'no'," said Hayden. "I was very frustrated because I thought I was set for a huge score. I've been run out a lot of times in Test cricket and, of all the ways of getting out, it's the most frustrating."
Dillon, who was dropped for the third Test, picked up two more wickets in the afternoon session, Andy Bichel caught by Smith for a duck and Brett Lee caught by substitute fielder Sylvester Joseph for 18.
After the break, he had Stuart MacGill caught by Lara for a duck, while Vasbert Drakes removed Jason Gillespie (5) and Glenn McGrath (14), who combined with Waugh in a 10th-wicket partnership of 29 runs.
Waugh made 45 not out before running out of partners.
West Indies fast bowler Jermaine Lawson, who took seven for 78 in the first innings, bowled only six overs in the second innings because of a back injury.