106. Earlier in this report, I described the history of corruption in cricket and the reasons why it has flourished. I also reported that I believe occurrence and match fixing are still taking place. In this section of the report I set out a number of interlinked recommendations which, if implemented, will give the ICC and the national cricket boards a much stronger ability to deal with the challenge which still has the potential to undermine confidence in world cricket. In putting forward these recommendations I have drawn on the work of the ACU and on the findings and recommendations of the inquiries set out in appendix B.
Education and Awareness
107. Ignorance of the risk and actuality of corruption in cricket have enabled malpractice to spread and flourish. I have spoken to mature and worldly wise players, umpires and administrators who were genuinely unaware of the corrupt practices until the revelations in recent years. There is a compelling case and acceptance for a programme of education and awareness training.
RECOMMENDATION NO 1
108. The ICC should develop and implement a comprehensive training and awareness programme designed to raise awareness of the risks of corruption in cricket and the methods used to entice players and others into malpractice. It should also emphasise the resolve of the ICC to deal with the problem and to punish wrongdoers.
RECOMMENDATION NO 2
109. An education programme will only be effective if it is professional, embraces all member countries and is ongoing. Whilst respecting national, cultural and religious differences, the ICC should produce training material that can be utilised in all the member countries with a consistent and enduring series of messages.
RECOMMENDATION NO 3
110. Best practice in major sports in the United States of America has shown the value of a professionally made video being at the core of a training programme to deter corruption. American football, basketball, baseball and the ice hockey authorities use a video commissioned by them. The ICC should commission a professionally made video for use in cricket. Such a video would be strengthened by the inclusion of disgraced cricketers relaying their experiences to deter others.
RECOMMENDATION NO 4
111. As well as raising awareness of the problem, the programme should encourage the reporting of improper approaches and engender confidence that the ICC does want to confront the problem. The video should be reinforced and supported by posters and other literature.
RECOMMENDATION NO 5
112. The training and awareness programme should target all international players, umpires and other relevant people in cricket. It should include all representative national teams from the youngest age group upwards. Beyond that consideration should be given to making sensible links with cricket academies and the domestic game within the individual countries.
Security and Control
113. Corruptors have gained access to players and others with consummate ease. The absence of even the most basic regime of accreditation on tours has allowed undesirable people to mix freely with players and has provided the breeding ground for improper approaches and corruption. A balance must be struck between the needs for privacy, a social life and the ambassadorial role of players on the one hand and on the other the need to create a viable regime of security and control. Consultation should take place and notice taken of the good practice which is being developed in some countries. I have set out below a package of measures designed to incorporate best practice and promote a sensible regime of security and control.
RECOMMENDATION NO 6
114. Each full member country of the ICC should appoint a full time Security Manager. They should be recruited locally and employed by the National Boards but work to a broadly similar job description. If necessary, they should be funded centrally by the ICC. Their job description will include:
Providing advice and action in relation to the security of players, officials and venues
Preventing and detecting improper approaches to players on tour
Collating intelligence about improper approaches and liaising with the Anti Corruption Unit.
115. The Security Managers could be drawn from a variety of backgrounds including police, military, security and cricket.
RECOMMENDATION NO 7
116. After consultation within cricket, a sensible regime which controls access to players on tour should become part of best practice. This should be formalised through accreditation systems. The mischief which must be stopped is the unrestricted access of potential corruptors to dressing rooms, hotels, training grounds and other venues in person or by telephone. If these practices are allowed to continue the efforts to control malpractice will deserve to be ridiculed.
RECOMMENDATION NO 8
117. Similarly, after a brief period of consultation, a sensible regime should be introduced to manage and restrict the use of mobile telephones during international matches by players and others with insider information to avoid the perception or reality of improper release of information for betting purposes.
RECOMMENDATION NO 9
118. If commercial imperatives continue to take international matches to neutral venues such as Sharjah, Canada, Singapore or elsewhere the ICC must recognize that the relaxed carnival atmosphere and the blurred regimes for payments and gifts provide an ideal venue for improper approaches. Extra vigilance and security will be necessary if these neutral venues continue to be used or expanded.
Player Conditions, Involvement and Obligations
119. Significant variations in player conditions, remuneration, representation and contractual obligations, whilst understandable, may have contributed to temptation and malpractice. It is argued that jealousy, insecurity and a potentially short international career have all added to the temptation to be drawn into corruption. The cultural and commercial differences within the member countries mitigate against a comprehensive single response to this challenge. Nevertheless, a number of improvements can and should be made.
RECOMMENDATION NO 10
120. The players are not sufficiently involved in the administration of the game and ownership of the problems. There is limited recognition of players representative bodies nationally and internationally. Even after taking account of recent developments such as the captains' meeting in Melbourne and the representation made by the embryo organisation representing players internationally, there is considerable scope for drawing players into a more productive relationship with the ICC. Consideration should be given to enhancing the role of the players and their representative bodies.
RECOMMENDATION NO 11
121. There should be a more consistent approach to players contracts. Ideally there would be a single common form of contract with common features including an obligation to comply with the latest Code of Conduct of the ICC which was published in November 2000. In the meantime the cricket boards who do not have a contractual relationship with their players should give written notice to the ICC that their players are aware of and bound by the Code of Conduct published in November 2000.
RECOMMENDATION NO 12
122. The first round of self declaration forms, which gave the players and others the opportunity to retrospectively report improper approaches and behaviour, was well motivated but not worth the logistical effort and outcome. The players obligations should be reflected in their contracts, briefings and the work of the new Security Managers. The self declaration process should not be repeated.
123. The current situation with part time umpires, paid different rates of remuneration, is recognised by the ICC as untenable longer term. The ICC also has proposals for a Manager of umpires.
RECOMMENDATION NO 13
124. The ICC has already announced plans for an elite panel of full time professional umpires, a Manager of umpires and proposals to develop other umpires to new levels of expertise and professionalism. These proposals should be implemented as soon as possible.
Prevention and Investigation of Corruption
125. The Anti Corruption Unit has been operational for seven months and its work has confirmed the long history of corrupt practices within cricket. These corrupt practices are now deeply ingrained in the operating culture of cricket and in some cases may be linked to major criminals. It will take a significant and long term effort to keep malpractice under control and to reduce it to a minimal level. The Anti Corruption Unit, with its current terms of reference, has made an important contribution in scoping the scale of the problem, establishing a database and supporting criminal investigations, judicial investigations and special investigations. However, it requires further change to build on these foundations. The ICC should also review its policies on drug abuse within cricket.
RECOMMENDATION NO 14
126. The ICC must accept that anti corruption and security measures are a necessary and long term requirement to be funded by the ICC.
RECOMMENDATION NO 15
127. The Anti Corruption Unit should be called the Anti Corruption and Security Unit or just the Security Unit. This will reflect its support for the new Security Manager posts. It will also utilise the considerable experience within the unit in relation to security issues generally. This will enable the unit to build on the vital anti corruption work which will remain at the core of its activities.
RECOMMENDATION NO 16
128. The ICC should review its awareness and policies in relation to unlawful use by players of performance enhancing drugs or other unlawful use of drugs and issue guidelines and advice.
RECOMMENDATION NO 17
129. It was important to have a high profile Director to inaugurate the work of the unit and I reaffirm my commitment to this task until the completion of the 2003 World Cup. However, the key issue for the ICC is that the work of this unit should be at the core of an integrated process to combat malpractice. The Anti Corruption and Security Unit should remain a small unit located in the same country as the new Chief Executive of the ICC and with much stronger links to the new Chief Executive on matters of strategy, budgets and personnel. Strong links should also be established with the new Security Managers (see recommendation no 6). Longer term the integrity of cricket will be best served by processes enshrined in the running and administration of the game. Less reliance should be placed on a succession of outsiders brought in to deal with the problem as if it is an ephemeral issue. As in comparative business organisations, the Chief Executive and the Executive Board of the ICC should be held accountable for their performance in combating malpractice.
RECOMMENDATION NO 18
130. Even though security and prevention of corruption should be an important concern for the Chief Executive and Executive Board, the operational independence of the Anti Corruption and Security Unit should be preserved by it continuing to report to the Chairman of the Code of Conduct Commission of the ICC on specific investigations.
RECOMMENDATION NO 19
131. The terms of reference of the unit should be reviewed and redrafted to take account of the recommendations in this report and to enable the unit to take on a more proactive role to prevent and detect corruption.
Mail Cricket Editor