Photographs: Coutresy Al-Jazeera
Reviled in the West as the personification of evil, bin Laden, the leader of the dreaded Al Qaeda who was believed to be around 54 years, had emerged from obscurity in a matter of three years on September 11, 2001 when the spectacular attacks on the United States leaving more than 3,000 people dead and hundreds more injured gave him a cult status.
Killing Americans a Muslim duty: Osama
Despite being a thorn in Amercia's side, bin Laden, the 17th of 52 children of multimillionaire builder Mohammed bin Laden, was admired and even revered by some fellow Muslims who embraced his vision of unending jihad against the US and Arab governments he deemed as infidels. Mohammed, a native of Yemen, who immigrated to Saudi Arabia as a child, was responsible for 80 per cent of construction of Saudi Arabia's roads.
Osama, a nemesis of George W Bush
Photographs: Mario Laporta/Reuters
"I can be eliminated, but not my mission," bin Laden, who eluded capture for years, was famously quoted as saying in an interview with a Pakistani journalist conducted shortly after the US invasion of Afghanistan.
Whether hated as a terrorist and mass murderer or hailed as the champion of oppressed Muslims fighting injustice and humiliation, bin Laden changed the course of history, which made the US and its allies rewrite their security doctrines. His end came after tireless efforts by US agencies.
Before 9/11, Osama was on FBI's 10 Most Wanted Fugitives list
Photographs: FBI handout/Reuters
Bin Laden once reportedly slipping out of a training camp in Afghanistan just hours before a barrage of US cruise missiles destroyed it, His actions set off a chain of events that led the US into wars in Afghanistan, and then Iraq, and a clandestine war against extreme Islamic adherents that touched scores of countries on every continent but Antarctica.America's entire intelligence apparatus was overhauled to counter the threat of more terror attacks at home.
Osama brought 'holy' war on world agenda
Perhaps as significant was his ability even from hiding to inspire a new generation of terrorists to murder in his name. Most of Al Qaeda's top lieutenants have been killed or captured in the years since Sept 11, 2001, and intelligence officials in Europe and Asia say they now see a greater threat from homegrown radical groups energised by bin Laden's cause.
Bin Laden became known as the most pious of the sons among his wealthy father's 54 children but his path to militant Islam began as a teenager in the 1970s when he got caught up in the fundamentalist movement then sweeping Saudi Arabia. He was a voracious reader of Islamic literature and listened to weekly sermons in the holy city of Mecca.
He joined the Afghans' war against invading Soviet troops in the 1980s and gained a reputation as a courageous and resourceful commander. Access to his family's considerable construction fortune certainly helped raise his profile among the mujahedeen fighters. At the time, Bin Laden's interests converged with those of the United States, which backed the "holy war" against Soviet occupation with money and arms.
Osama was stripped off Saudi citizenship
He tried to dissuade the government from allowing non-Muslim armies into the land where the Prophet Muhammad gave birth to Islam, but the Saudi leadership turned to the US to protect its vast oil reserves.
When bin Laden continued criticising Riyadh's close alliance with Washington, he was stripped of Saudi citizenship. In his familiar terrain in Afghanistan allowed in by the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani, bin Laden and his Al Qaeda network prepared for the holy war that turned him into Washington's No 1 enemy.
Mullah Mohammed Omar gave refuge to Osama in Kabul
In Afghanistan, he would wake before dawn for prayers, then eat a simple breakfast of cheese and bread. He closely monitored world affairs. Almost daily, he and his men Egyptians, Yemenis, Saudis, among others practiced attacks, hurling explosives at targets and shooting at imaginary enemies.He also went horseback riding, his favourite hobby, and enjoyed playing traditional healer, often prescribing honey, his favorite food, and herbs to treat colds and other illnesses.
US dragnet for Osama, the largest in history for an individual
Photographs: File photo/Reuters
Since September 11, bin Laden stayed a step ahead of the US dragnet perhaps the largest in history for a single individual. As the Taliban quickly fell under pressure of the US bombardment, bin Laden fled into the inhospitable mountains in the seam that separates Pakistan and Afghanistan, keeping up a spotty stream of chatter first in video tapes and then in scratchy audio recordings to warn his Western pursuers of more bloodshed
Post Osama, the threat continues
Hundreds of Al Qaeda suspects are believed to have escaped the massive US bombing campaign there, and bin Laden is believed to have been among them. During the past decade, bin Laden and deputy Ayman al-Zawahri have appeared regularly in audio and videotapes to issue threats, and comment on a wide range of current events, although the appearances trailed off in recent years.