Stocks can be as tricky a business for novice investors as they are for seasoned players. However, as Warren Buffet has always propagated, 'Right stocks at the right price' is the way to laugh your way to the bank. This means, avoiding all those 'junk' stocks and setting your sights only on the 'right ones'.
So how do we really separate the wheat from the chaff? In an age where Satyam and Infosys both ruled the roost at one point of time, how do we know which ones are the black sheep and which ones are not?
In this issue of women's weekly, we bring to you the fundamentals of choosing a stock from a long-term perspective:
A sound management is like a captain of a ship. The onus of charting out the right direction in still waters and steering the company safely in troubled times lies on the management.
We would even go to the extent of saying that the way in which a management behaves, determines to a great extent, the long term success of the business. You don't want to be an investor in a company where the management takes money from the shareholders to fill its own pockets.
A case in point here would be Satyam. It promised its investors the moon. However, they soon had to settle for sleepless nights as the ugly truth of Satyam reared its head.
Traders routinely buy and sell the same stocks within a time frame of a few hours. 'Investors', on the other hand, put money in stocks and hold on for a longer period of time, generally at least 2 to 3 years.
Develop an investor mentality. Adopt a long-term investment strategy. While looking at the quarterly results of the company, don't lose sight of the bigger picture. Invest for a longer duration which promises more returns and is not affected by daily market fluctuations.
Research shows that the shorter the duration of investment, the more are the chances of losing money. While, with long term investing, the chances of losing money are lesser.
Remember, the longer the investment period, the greater are the chances of making money.
Emotions need to be kept aside while dealing with stocks. Don't get emotionally attached to your investments. Your aim is to get maximum profits out of your stocks. It's immaterial if this is achieved through selling them, buying them or holding them.
Just because you are emotionally attached to the stock or just because the little voice inside your heart says, "Give it some time and things will work out just fine", does not mean that you have to hold on to a stock when it is destined to hit its nadir.
At the end of the day, it's all about numbers. Numbers can tell a story - you should just have an ear attuned to understanding their language. It makes sense to thoroughly investigate the company and its track record.
Consistency is the key. If the company is good, it will have a consistent performance. Its income statement will show consistent profits. Its annual reports will talk about the consistent dividends doled out. Ideally, the company should have a dividend history over the past 5 years and a dividend payout comparable with its peers.
In the case of 'growth stocks', the game changes a little. The company may not distribute its' profits as dividends; rather, it would invest the profits back into the venture for future growth. However, all said and done, it should not invest so much that it has to resort to frequent financing from outside. In other words, it should not undertake frequent dilution of equity or raise so much debt that its debt to equity ratio spirals out of control.
Looking at prior records helps one understand the company's capabilities. It gives an idea, shows a direction, and helps to understand the company's vision and the path ahead.
The golden rule to investing is considering the future growth prospects of the company you are investing in. During the dot-com boom, many investors displayed a herd mentality, investing in companies without any research. The result was the dot-com bust that followed.
It is important to not only know the company like the back of your hand but also be aware of the external factors influencing the growth of the stock. The overall state of the economy, the factors influencing political and social environment should also be considered while investing.
Sector growth, the demand supply trend and the competition in the sector also need attention before you decide to invest in a particular stock.
If you are a serious investor, you cannot go by intuition alone. You will need to do a lot of homework before zeroing on a particular stock. This should not be difficult. We may be considered impulsive buyers, but we do have our own ways of background research before we make the ultimate buying decision.
Homework before investing would include reading up about the company you are about to invest in. Reading its annual reports, studying the balance sheet, analyzing its profits, assets and liabilities; reading interviews of the top management, keeping yourself updated about the latest economic policies.
In short, being the sponge and soaking every piece of news and information related to your investment.
Keep a constant track of your investments. Regardless of the market condition, whether it is a bear market or a bull market, it is your money that is at the stake. Your hard earned money! You owe it to yourself to ensure that the savings that you have invested are showing a promise and growing.
It's the last mile that makes the difference in the race. It's not just about the right formula but about the grit to see it through. The grit to emerge as a winner.
Don't lose steam once you invest. Serious follow up is what will differentiate you from other investors. It will be your secret weapon, your protective armour, the secret charm that will help you make the best of your investments.