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lpd`S> > h^y kdpQpfp > AMpsu ey > dygpL$ps






2 Arg, 2003

1952dp gV$_V$ S>_fg qL$f`pg tkl f^php_u gL$fu L$qfef kpsdu gpBV$ L$hgfu_p Ar^L$pfu sfuL$ r_dZ|L\u \C lsu. rkѡf_p v$peL$pdp sAp BfpL$u Ar^L$pfuAp_ spgud Ap`hp Negu cpfsue Apdu Ar^L$pfuAp_u Vy$L$X$u_p hX$p `Z lsp. Ap spgud cpfs-BfpL$ hQ_p gL$fu L$fpf_p AL$ cpN lsp. epf sdZ S> Ar^L$pfuAp_ spgud Ap`u lsu sdp lpg_p BfpL$_p kfnZ ^p_ S>_fg kygsp_ lpiud Aldv$ `Z lsp.

lpiud A_ kpd lzk_ hQ_p _L$_p kb^pA R>gp 25 hjpdp S>_fg f^php_ BfpL$ afhp S>hp_u A_L$ sLp$ `|fu `pX$u R>. sAp kp\u `lgp 1977dp BfpL$ Nep lsp A_ 1979 ky^u ep fp lsp. s `R>u `Z AL$ hpf sAp afS> `f lsp epf BfpL$ Nep lsp.

qfqX$a.L$pd_p Qua L$pf`pX$V$ ApL$pf tkl A_ šku ška kp\_u Mpk dygpL$psdp S>_fg f^phpA L$y L$ eydp kr_Lp AL$bu_u lep L$f s Aepe _ NZpe. 1990dp r_h \sp `lgp cpfsue Apd}_u `lgp ApX$ qX$rhT__p L$dpX$f flu Q|L$gp f^phpA Ad `Z L$y L$ kpd lzk_ `pk fpkperZL$ A_ S>rhL$ lr\epfp _\u Ahy dp_hy bhL|$au NZpi.


AdqfL$p A_ rbV__p S>_fg klepNu v$mp_ eydpfQ dmgu kamspAp rhi A_L$ v$phpAp L$f R>. sAp Ad `Z L$l R> L$ ey \pX$p AW$hpqX$epApdp `|fy \C S>i. iy sd Ad_p rhpk L$fp R>p?

lz dpfu s_ Aepf BfpL$dp Qpgu flgp ey ky^u kurds fpMhp dpNsp _\u. A sp b^p S> Z R> L$ A_ychu gL$fu hX$pAp gpbp A_ V|$L$p Npmp_u, b_ epS>_pAp b_phsp lpe R>. 1991_p AMps ey hMs AdqfL$p_ kfm s dmu lsu. s\u sdZ dp_u gu^y L$ Ap hMs `Z Ad S> \hp_y R>. 1991dp BfpL$uAp L$d lpfu Nep s_u `pR>m gpbu V$pfu R>. L$v$pQ s hMs_p A_ych `f\u AdqfL$_pA gpL$p_ Ad L$lu v$u^y L$ Ap r_ZpeL$ A_ _p_y ey li S>dp _pNqfL$p A_ AdqfL$_ kr_L$p_ ApR>pdp ApRy> _yL$kp_ `lpQi. `fsy Ahy ie _\u.

1991 A_ Aepf_p eydp BfpL_p gL$f OX$gu epS>_pdp ip saphs R>?

saphs A R> L$ BfpL$uAp `pk V$޼k, lhpC kfnZ eh\p S>hp ey dpV$_p Dd kp^_p R>. `fsy sdZ b dpV$u c|gp L$fu lsu. `lgu c|g lpC L$dpX$_u lsu. AL$ hpf Ly$hs `f lzdgp L$ep bpv$ A_ Ly$hsuAp_ šfv$pf dps Apep bpv$ sdZ `pR>p Aphu S>hy šCsy lsy. Aphy Qu_ 1962dp Ap`Zu kp\ L$ey lsy. sdZ Ap`Z_ šfv$pf aV$L$p dpep A_ `R>u `pR>p afu Nep lsp.

`fsy BfpL$uApA Ahy _ L$ey. sdZ dpfp S>hp rdp A_ Mpk sp friep_p d_phhp\u d_ sp hpey `fsy `pR>p Aphu S>hp_p lzL$d sd_p ke_ AQp_L$ dep. BfpL$uAp Of `pR>p S>hp dpV$ Dsphmp \C Nep ep sdZ lhpClzdgp_p kpd_p L$fhp `X$p. Ap lhpClzdgpdp sd_ cpf _yL$kp_ \ey lsy. ey_pBV$X$ _ik pfp L$fhpdp Aphgu v$fep_Nufu `R>u ey_p As Apep lsp.

bNv$pv$_ vy$d_p\u bQphhp dpV$ kpd lzk_ A_ s_p Ar^L$pfuApA iy epS>_p b_phu R>?

BfpL$ `pk Z ki hpl_p_u Vy$L$X$uAp R>. vfL$ Vy$L$X$uApdp 10,000 kr_L$p, 150\u 200 V$L$, 50\u 60 sp`, ip gC S>hp dpV$ h`fpsp hpl_p hNf R>. A^gL$fu v$mp_u spL$ps h^pfhp dpV$ dpL$ghpdp Aphgp L$V$gpL$ AL$dp rkhpe b^u S> ki hpl_p_u Vy$L$X$uAp bNv$pv$_u ApSy>bpSy> sl_ps R>. Ap b^u Vy$L$X$uAp le AL$b^ R>.

Ap rkhpe BfpL$ `pk L$V$guL$ eprL$ Vy$L$X$uAp R> S>dp \pX$u V$L$p, ip gC S>hp dpV$ h`fpsp hpl_p, kr_L$p A_ Ae hpl_p R>. Ap rkhpe sd_u `pk b BV$u R>. Aepf sd S> šC fp R>p s_ cpfsue Apd} A_ rbqV$i Apd}dp L$hqfN V$` L$lhpdp Aph R>. vy$d_ epf kflv$ `pf L$fhp_p e_ L$f epf sd_p kp\u `lgp kpd_p L$fhp_y L$pd L$hqfN V$`_y lpe R>. sd_u `pk h^pf ip lpsp _\u A_ sd_p dye Dءi vy$d_p_p lzdgp_ h^pf _ h^pf rhgrbs L$fhp_p A_ `pR>m lV$phhp_p lpe R>. sAp vy$d_p kp\ gX$u df$hp dpV$ _\u lpsp.

S>d S>d klepNu v$mp bNv$pv$_u _L$ `lpQi sd sd ey h^y f$kpL$ku cfgy b_sy S>i A_ klepNu v$mp dpV$ ey h^y dyL$g b_i. S>hp AdqfL$_p A_ klepNu v$mp bNv$pv$ ky^u `lpQi L$ BfpL$uAp Qp$k sd_p bMsqfep hpl_p_u Vy$L$X$uAp_p D`epN S>$f L$fi. A_ buš sb$p brg_ A_ V$rg_NpX$_u S>d ilfu ey_p li.

AdqfL$_pA ApdOpsu lzdgpAp_ Aepe A_ rS>r_hp L$fpf_u rhfy NZpep R>.

eydp epf kpdkpdu gX$pC Qpgy lpe R> epf L$iy S> MpVy$ L$ kpQy lpsy _\u. sd_ `|R>p_ L$ AdqfL$pA _pNpkpL$u A_ qlfpridp `f Abpb _pep lsp iy A epe lsy? sd sdpfp dpV$ A_ bu dpV$ bhX$p dp`v$X$ _ fpMu iL$p. S> sd L$fp s epe A_ S> bu L$f s Aepe Ahy _ lpe. `gp ApdOpsu lzdgpMpf s_p v$i_$ kdr`s kr_L$ lsp A_ s `psp_p v$i dpV$ `psp_p h Ap`hp sepf lsp.

AdqfL$_p ep Ap$dZ L$f R> s_ sAp AL$ sL$ h$` k^pegy r_ip_ dp_ R>.

A sp sd_u L$lhp_u fus R>. `fsy lz AV$gy sp Qp$k L$lui L$ eydp L$V$guL$ Ahu QuS> R> S> sdpfp\u _ \C iL$. S>d L$ epf AL$ kr_L$ `psp_p ip lW$p d|L$u_ lp\ D`f L$fu _pM R> epf sd A_ L$v$u b_php, s_ L$`X$p A_ Mphp_y Ap`p A_ s_y fnZ L$fp, `fsy s_ dpfu sp _ _pMp. A AL$ ApMu AgN bpbs R>. lp! `Z ep ky^u sd ey L$fp R>p ep ky^u L$iy S> Aepe lpsy _\u. Apsffp$ue L$fpfdp fpkperZL$ A_ S>rhL$ ip_p D`epN L$fhp `f rsb^ d|L$hpdp Apep R>. A_ lz τ Ry> ep ky^u BfpL$ l ky^u Aphp ip_p D`epN L$ep _\u.

iy BfpL$ `pk fpkperZL$ A_ S>rhL$ ip R>?

lz Qp$k`Z L$lu iL$sp _\u L$ sd_u `pk Ahp ip R> L$ _l]. lz BfpL$u kr_L$p A_ Ar^L$pfuAp_ bu L$pC L$fsp h^pf kpfu fus ApmMy Ry>. sd_u `pk Aphp ip R> S> _l] Ahy rhQpfhy L$pC_p `Z `n bhL|$au NZpe. BfpL$uAp `pk Aphp ip lphp S> šCA, `fsy d_ gpN R> L$ sd_ Mbf R> L$ Aphp ip_p D`epN \C _ iL$.

AdqfL$_p L$l R> L$ sd_p v$mp_ L$rdL$g kyV$ dep R> S> v$iph R> L$ BfpL$ `pk fpkperZL$ A_ S>rhL$ lr\epfp R>.

L$rdL$g kyV$ Nk\u kfnZ `|fy `pX$sy kp^_ R>. `lgp rhey hMs epf fpkperZL$ ip_p D`epN L$fhpdp Apep lsp epf lfp L$rdL$g kyV$ W$f W$f lsp. L$rdL$g kyV$ fpMhp_p A\ A _\u L$ sd fpkperZL$ ip_p D`epN L$fhp_p R>p. Ap_p A\ A `Z \pe L$ epf AdqfL$p BfpL$ `f fpkperZL$ ip_p D`epN L$f epf BfpL$_y ke L$rdL$g kyV$ hNf_y _ flu S>hy šCA. L$qdL$g kyV$ ldip `psp_p kfnZ dpV$ `Z fpMhpdp Aph R>. š sdpfu `pk fpkperZL$ ip R> A_ sd s_p D`epN L$fhp dpNp R>p sp sd `psp_u s_y fnZ L$fhp dpV$ L$rdL$g kyV$ fpMp sdp iy MpVy$ R>?

Ap ey L$V$gy gpby Qpgi?

Ap __p Df Ap`hp dyL$g R>. Ap_ bu fus šCA. Ap`Z 6 kV$bf, 1965_p qv$hk s hMs_p hX$p ^p_ gpg blpvy$f ipu_ L$pfZ `pqL$sp_ kp\ gX$gp. `fsy d_ epv$ R> L$ 8du kV$bf, 1965_p qv$hk V$pBk Apa B[X$ep_y d\pmy bpey lsy L$, "gplpf_u cpNpm cpfsue kr_L$p'.

S> qv$hk eyrhfpd lf \ep s qv$hk kr_L$p l gplpf kflv$ `f S> lsp. Ap `L$pf_p v$phpAp hlgpkf_p L$$lhpe. Dd Lkf l ldZp S> klepNu v$mp_p lp\dp Apey R>. bkfp l `L$X$dp Apey _\u. _pkuqfep_p `|fp L$bš sp v|$f `Z l sp A T|eye _\u. epf _S>a _L$ kMs gX$pC Qpgy R>.

Al] syL$}A Aes dlh_p cpN cS>ep R>. sZ BfpL$ `f lzdgp L$fhp dpV$ AdqfL$p_ `psp_u c|rd hp`fhp_u _p `pX$u v$u^u. `qfZpd AdqfL$p A_ klepNu v$mp_p gL$f_ v$rnZ sfa fhp_p L$fhp `X$p. A bpSy> AdqfL$p `pk dp s_y Afbp_ rbNX$ 173 S> lsy. s_u dv$v$\u `lgp sd fsp ip^_pfp A_ R>uv$m dpL$gu iLp A_ `R>u sd AfauX$ sepf L$fp R>p. sd `lgp AfauX$_ kgpds L$fp R>p A_ `R>u ep ke NpW$hu iL$p R>p. Ap rbNX$ Dfdp\u bNv$pv$ `f QY$pC L$fhp dpV$ `|fsu _\u.

`fsy sdZ Dfdp sp AL$ AfauX$ kgpds L$fu gu^y R>.

AfauX$ kgpds L$fu _pMhp\u L$C hmsy _\u. _ A R> L$ iy sd s_p\u ApNm h^u iL$p R>p? sdpfu `pk V$L$ lphu šCA, gL$fu kpdp_ gC e shp hpl_p lphp šCA. sdpfu `pk v|$f ky^u R>pX$u iL$pe shu sp`p lphu šCA. sdpfu `pk ip A_ MpfpL$ b__p gL$fu kfd lphp šCA. sdpfu rdkpBk aL$hp_u i[s_u `Z AL$ kudp lpe R>. lz sd_ rhes_pd ey_u epv$ A`phu iLy$? qX$$A_ rbA_ aw_p eps eydp pk vy$d_vidp Mpkp Av$f ky^u lzdgp L$ep lsp. `fsy As sAp s lzdgp_ AL$kfMp Qpgy fpMu iep _lu A_ rhes_pd_y ke Q Apd} `f rhS>eu _uhX$y.

kss 12 qv$hk ky^u bpbdpfp kl_ L$ep bpv$ BfpL$uAp `pk l L$V$gp qv$hk V$L$u flhp_u ndsp R>?

Adp L$pC iL$p _\u L$ Apd kss bpbdpfp_p kpd_p L$ep bpv$ gX$hp_u ndsp hpcprhL$ fus S> ApR>u \C e R>. `fsy Ap hMs BfpL$uAp L$pC `Z dykubs_p kpd_p L$fhp `|f`|fp kS> R>. lz Al] qv$ludp BfpL$_p ki hpl_p_u Vy$L$X$uAp_p AL$ Ar^L$pfu_ dep lsp. A lydgp i$ \ep s_p Z qv$hk `lgp S> Al]\u _uL$ep lsp. BfpL$dp v$fL$ Of_ R> drl_p_y A_pS> Ap`hpdp Apey R>. S>Ap_ `pkpe R> s b^p_ Ofdp L|$hp Mpv$phu fpMhp_y L$lhpdp Apey R> A_ s_p MQp_p `Qpk V$L$p cpN kfL$pf Q|L$ep R>. `qfZpd bNv$pv$dp v$f Qp\p Ofdp L|$hp R>.

AdqfL$_p_ bkfpdp `pZu_u AR>s hspi `Z BfpL$uAp_ bNv$pv$dp epfe `pZu_u AR>s hspi _l]. Ap v$MpX$ R> L$ sd_u sepfu L$hu R>. Ap v$MpX$ R> L$ sAp Ap ey dpV$ dp_rkL$ A_ ipfuqfL$ fus LV$gp sepf R>.

iy AdqfL$_p BfpL$_p D_pmp kl_ L$fu iL$i?

Ad_u `pk L$pC rhL$` _\u.

kpd_ iy šCA R>? s_p e|l iy R>?

kpd_ kdp_, bv$gp A_ BS>s šCA R>. A epfe dv$p_ R>pX$u_ cpNi _l]. A epfe ifZ \i _l]. š S>$f Ecu \i sp rlV$gf_u S>d s bL$fdp dfu S>i. A AdqfL$p A_ klepNu v$mp_p gL$f_ ie sV$gy h^pf _yL$kp_ `lpQpX$hp_p e_ L$fu fp R>. AdqfL$p, s_p fp$`rs A_ s_p Ar^L$pfuAp_ S>V$gu gpip dmi sV$gu S> AdqfL$p_p kpdpe dp_hu_u _rsL$ rlds OV$u S>i. š sd AL$ kffpi AdqfL$__ vy$r_ep_p _L$ipdp BfpL$ bsphhp L$lip sp A bsphu iLi _l], bkfp A_ bNv$pv$_u hps S>hp v$p.

sAp _ `|R>u fp R> L$ ip dpV$ sd_p R>pL$fp L$ R>pL$fuApA Ahp v$idp S>C ey L$fhy šCA A_ dfhy šCA S>Z epfe sd_p Of `f AL$ `\f `Z _ dpep lpe. byi kpd_p rhfp^ ApNpdu qv$hkpdp h^hp_p R>. A_ `psp_u S> L$V$guL$ dykubsp R>. kpd Apip fpMu_ bW$p R> ey_u bpbsdp vy$r_ep s_u sfaZdp \i A_ s `ps S> Ap ey dpV$ rhQpf R> shy vy$r_ep `Z rhQpfsu \i. A_ Ahy \C `Z fy R>. Apfb v$ip AL$ \C Nep R> A_ sdZ QpMy S>Zphu v$u^y R> L$ sd_ Ap ey dpe _\u. pk_p Arcpe sp lf S> R>. AdqfL$p_u rhfy A_ kpd lzk__u sfaZdp h^y _ h^y gpL$p blpf Aphu fp R>.


sdpfp dpV$

rd_ dpL$gp

kfm rV$

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