lpd`S> | dyhuV$pBd | ApabuV$


X$p. fph rhS>eL$f

radDpN_p AL$ kam rhg_ AL$ hpf L$y lsy, "rlv$u qadpdp b S> S>Z_y dlh kp\u h^pf R>. AL$ lufp A_ buš rhg_.'

qadpdp L$pd L$fsp v$fL$ L$gpL$pf_ d_dp AL$ BR>p kmhmsu lpe R> L$ AL$ hMs sp Ap`Z be L$pf_u c|rdL$p L$fu v$MpX$hu R>. `Z dpV$ cpN Ahy šhp dm R> L$ rhg_ b_sp L$gpL$pfdp lufp b_hp S> S>$fu lpe Ahy dqV$qfeg _\u lpsy. epf lufp_ Ahu L$pC dyL$gu _X$su _\u. A _NqV$h fpg `Z L$fu iL$ R>.

šL$ rh_pv$ M_p L$ iy_ tklp S>hp fX$pMX$p A`hpv$p `Z R>. S>dZ rhg__p fpg\u qaddp L$qfef i$ L$fu lpe A_ `R>u lufp_p fpgdp du Nep lpe. `Z Ahy cpe S> b_sy lpe R>.

rlfpB_pdp dydspT `lgp L$pdqX$e_ A_ h`_p fpg\u i$Aps L$fu `Z `R>u s rlfpB__p fpgdp `Z Qpgu.

OZpb^p qadV$pk _NqV$h fpgdp `Z R>hpC S>hp_u L$prii L$fu R>.

S> `lg\u gpL$re \C Nep lpe Ahp V$pk dpV$ _NqV$h fpg L$fhp klgp b_u e R>. X$bg fpgdp AL$ kpfp A_ buš Mfpb Ahp fpg L$fu_ `Z sAp sd_u lufp sfuL$_u BdS>, gpL$resp mhu fpMu iL$ R> A_ R>sp _NqV$h fpg\u sAp sd_u Arc_e ndsp kprbs L$fu iL$ R>.

AipL$ Ly$dpf qL$ds (1943)dp AV$u lufp c|rdL$p L$fu lsu. s `R>u 1951dp Aakp_p qaddp lufp A_ rhg_ Ad X$bg fpg L$ep lsp A_ s `R>u 1961dp L$p_|_ qaddp `Z _NqV$h fpg L$ep lsp.

qv$guLy$dpf awV$`p\, v$h Ap_v$ vy$d_ A_ dyr_d A_ fpS> L$`|f bhap raddp AV$u lufp V$pB` fpg L$ep lsp.

hluv$p fldp_, fpS> Ly$dpf, ^d, ky_ug v$ѡ `Z Aphp fpg L$ep lsp.

'90_p v$peL$pdp iplfyM Mp_ bpTuNf, X$f A_ Ad Ad Z Z qadpdp _NrV$h fpg L$fu_ rkr dmhu lsu.

s `R>u Apaspb rihv$pkp_uA L$k|f qaddp, Erdgp dpspX$L$f epf s|_ ep qL$ep A_ L$dg lk_ Ace raddp Aphp _NqV$h iX$hpmp fpg L$ep. Ane Ly$dpf A_ rb`pip bkyA `Z AS>_bu qaddp _NqV$h fpg L$ep lsp.

lufp sfuL$ kam _ \egp kS>e L$`|f `Z L$pC df qv$g k `|R> raddp _NqV$h fpg L$ep. fhu_p V$X$__u ApNpdu qad hpl sfp ep L$l_p qaddp s _NqV$h c|rdL$pdp šhp dmi. Ardspc_u ApM qad_u `Z fpl šhu flu. sdp `Z sAp Aphp S> fpgdp R>.

T_|_u du_p fpg lpe L$ šqX$ep cpCApdp_p AL$ rhg_ lpe, L$ `R>u rhL$s dNS>_p dpZk lpe L$ kšNp_p riL$pf bep lpe, rlv$u radp_p V$pk Aphp fpg L$fhp_p ApL$jZ\u bQu iL$sp _\u.

Aepf ky^udp _NqV$h fpg L$fu_ `Z kam \ep lpe Ahp L$V$gpL$ qadV$pk_u hpsp Zhp S>hu R> :

 
 


Ardspc bQ_ (`fhp_p, v$uhpf, Ak)
`fhp_p qaddp Ardspc_y L$pd gpL$pA M|b hMpey lsy.

`ps S>_ d L$f R> s_ buSy> L$pC d L$f R> A lL$uL$s ep `R>u `psp_p lfua e_p r^$pf A_ bv$gp_u cph_p sdZ blz AkfL$pfL$ fus es L$fu lsu.

bQ_ š lufp sfuL$ kam _ \ep lps sp rhg_ sfuL$ Qp$k R>hpC Nep lps.

v$uhpfdp sd_p _NqV$h fpg `Z gprkL$ NZpe R>. s D`fps sdZ b^ lp\, X$p_, kѡ ` kp, brdkpg, ApMfu fpsp, Av$pgs, v$idu, Nlfu Qpg S>hu qadpdp `Z Aphp fpg L$ep lsp.

R>g Akdp `Z _NqV$h fpg L$ep lsp.

 
 


iplfyM Mp_ (bpTuNf, X$f, Ad, Xy$[gL$V$)
L$qfef_u i$Apsdp S> iplfyM AL$ _l] b _l], Z Z radpdp _NqV$h fpg L$L$ep A_ v$iL$pA iplfyM_ Ap $`dp `Z h^phu gu^p.

s `R>u sZ L$V$gue fpd[V$L$ qadp `Z L$fu A_ sdpe s AV$gp S> gpL$re \ep.

 
 


kS>e v$ (hpsh)
kS>e v$ѡ _pd, Mg_peL$ A_ S>N S>hu qadpdp _NqV$h fpg L$ep lsp.

`Z hpsh qaddp sZ S> fus kpdpe dpZk_u gpQpfu es L$fu s v$iL$p_p qv$grv$dpNdp AL$pC NC.

r__ ded hN_p dlpfpue_ Ly$Vy$b_p R>pL$fp Ny_pMpfu_u vy$r_epdp Aphu sp e R> A_ `R>u sdp\u _uL$mu iL$sp _\u. Ny_Npf b_hp dpNsp _ lphp R>sp sdp\u R|>V$u iL$sp _\u A dS>b|fu, `uX$p sZ bfpbf es L$fu lsu.

 
 



L$pšg (Nys)
Qygbygu L$pšg_p Nys qad_p fpg NS>b_p lsp.

L$pšg_p ky`b Arc_e_ gu^ Nys k`k A_ r\gf radpdp kudprQl_ rad b_u NC.

 
 


uv$hu (Sy>v$pC)
AL$ `_u sfuL$ s_ L$pC hf _lpsy ghy L$ _ L$pC_y M|_ L$fhy lsy, s_ as `kp šCsp lsp L$pC `Z fus. `kp dpV$ s bu u_ `psp_p `rs hQu v$sp `Z AQL$psu _\u.

cprsL$ Quš dmhhp gpL$p L$C `Z L$fu iL$ R> A_ A hps Sy>v$pCdp uv$huA hs L$fu bsphu lsu.

 
 


fpS>i M_p (kQp S|>W$p)
fpd[V$L$ lufp sfuL$ ky`fVpf `v$ dmhu Q|L$gp fpS>i M_pA kQp S|>W$p rad huL$pfu_ šMd gu^y lsy. `Z šMd aey.

NpdX$p_p cgpcpmp eyhp_ A_ Ny_pMpf eyhp__p Ad b_ fpgdp sdZ _ gphu v$u^p A_ gpL$pA sd_ _NqV$h fpgdp `Z hMpep.

 
 


AipL$ Ly$dpf (hg \ua)
iy_ tklpA L$v$pQ lufpgpN_u `uV$pB L$fu_ r\eV$fdp ApNgu lfpm_ Myi L$fu v$u^u li. `Z rlv$u qadpdp l ky^u hg \ua_p AipL$ Ly$dpf S>hp QprdN A_ dyku rhg_ Apep _\u.

qaddp AipL$ Ly$dpf R>g `L$X$pC e R> epf `Z sd_u kk Apa ydf_p QdL$pfp šhp dm R>.

qX$fV$f rhS>e Ap_v$ AipL$ Ly$dpf_u Arc_endsp_p `|f`|fp apev$p DW$pep A_ hg \ua_p rhg__y `p epv$Npf b_u Ney.

 
 


Ardsp tkl (Ape_p)
Ape_p qad qfrgT \C epf Ardsp tkl_u L$pfqL$v$} gNcN Msd \hp_ Apf lsu. `Z Ap qad\u sZ `ps l qadpdp Arc_e L$fu iL$ sd R> A `yfhpf L$fu v$u^y.

Ds A_ bNX$gu dpV$u bl_ fpdp_p `pdp s _p_u bl_ (Sy>lu Qphgp)_p h_dp cNpZ `pX$hp_u L$prii L$f R>. s_p Arc_e M|b hMZpep A_ s_u c|rdL$p dpV$ s_ AhpX$ `Z dep.

 
 


ky_ug v$ (d^f B[X$ep)
ky_ug v$_u L$qfef_u l i$Aps lsu. L$pC BdS> L$ A[V$N V$pBgdp l sAp b^pC Nep _lpsp.

qaddL$f dlb|b Mp_ sd_ rbfSy>_y `p Apey A_ A kp\ S> rhg_ b_gp ky_ug v$ lufp b_u Nep.

 

qX$TpB_ : Dv$e Ly$qL$e_

 
Ap ApabuV$ Ap`_ L$hy gpey ?


rhij hpQ_ :
L$pgrdV | qfqX$a X$pefu | apV$p Ngfu | c|L$`rhij | bS>V$ 2001 | kk L$p_f | srbes | NysNy | TV$`V$ fkpC | V$pfuV$pBd | Anfp | NTg fX$u-fL$_f | R>gp 50 hjpdp.. | dpshv$_p | oprshpv$ | `ephfZ | dygpL$ps