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ApS>_p Ap^yr_L$ L$lhpsp dp_hu Ap^yr_L$uL$fZ, _hp epgp, _hp kL$pfp, _hu kL$rs-b^pdp "BTu d_u'_p dpN ip^hp gpep R> Ahy X$Ng _ `Ng šhp dm R>. Ap "BTu d_u' dmhhp dpV$ cpfs_u eyhp`Y$uA Z Apr\L$ A`fp^p_p rkgrkgp Qgpep R>. `pR>gp kL$X$p hjpdp Apr\L$ nӡ S> Ny_pAp \ep s\u A_L$NZp Apr\L$ A`fp^p_u lpfdpmp Ap`Z_ R>gp AdyL$ v$iL$pApdp šhp dmu R>.

ApS> Ap`Z A gpL$p_u QQp L$fuA S>Ap A^pfu Apgd L$fspe h^y Msf_pL$ R>. sAp fp$_p A\s kp\ S> fus QX$p L$f R> s_ S>_sp kdn d|L$u A Apr\L$ A`fp^uAp_p S>d L$C fus \ep? sd_ L$pZ pkpl_ Apey? s_y `qfZpd iy v$MpC fy R> s_u hps L$fuA. kp\kp\, Ap _p_p S>hpbp D`f kdepsf `X$sp S>sp AphfZ_ DMX$hp_u L$prii L$fu A Zhp_p e_ L$fuA L$ Ap`Z Ap fp$ue A`fp^ L$lu iL$pe shu Ny_pMpfudp ku^u L$ ApX$L$sfu fus kX$phpegp sp _\u _?

"_p bubu _p bQp, _p bp` bX$p _p dep, gqL$_ kb k bX$p $`ep'. qadS>Ns_u kp\u Zusu lsu pfp r_rds "kb k bX$p $`ep' qad_p Ap Nus_u `[s sp `kp_ `fdf NZsp dp_hu_p h_dp epf_u hZpC Q|L$u R>. lpe Arc_sp dld|v$ lksp lksp QpV$v$pf eN pfp Ap ke L$lu_ gpL$p_ fX$phu _pep lsp. `fsy ApS> Ap ke AV$gy b^y ep`L$ sd S> Nl_ \C Ney R> L$ gpL$p fX$u `Z _\u iL$sp.

"e_L$_ L$pfZ `kp b_php, dp `kp b_php' A ApS>_p ^d R>, kv$i R>, ke R>. "`kp li sp S> kdpS>dp dp_, v$fš, BS>s b^y S> li.' bk, Aphp S> rhQpfp L$ dpespAp A_ kdS>dp\u `kp_y dlh kss h^sy Ney A_ AV$gy h^sy Ney L$ e[s_u rsW$p, cph, kdp_ hNf S>hu bpbsp `kp_p Ap^pf spmpsu NC. "`kp li sp gpL$p `|R>sp Aphi, _l]sf kdpS>dp sdpfp L$pC cph `Z _l] `|R>' S>hu dpesp bu A_L$ kamspAp L$ h__p KQp dp`v$X$p_ NpZ b_phu v$hpdp L$pqdepb _uhX$u R>.

kdpS>dp, Mpk L$fu_ eyhp`Y$udp agpegu Ap dpesp_ L$pfZ "BTu d_u' AV$g L$ TX$`\u `kp L$dphu ghp_u Ap^mu v$pV$_p fsp Cdp_v$pfu, r_W$p S>hp hmpL$p_ lV$aV$ QX$phu ku^p ep _uL$mhp gpep ep NffursAp, QpgpL$uAp, NpV$pmp, dr_eygi_, R>sft`X$uAp ApQfhp_u dpL$mpi lsu. A_ Ap "BTu d_u' L$ "apV$ d_u'_p k|_p S>d Aphp rhrh^ NfL$p_|_u L$lu iL$pe shp dpN \C Nep. A_ gpL$p_y ep_ ku^y ifbf sfa Ney.

Aepf ky^u Ap`Z šsp Apep R>uA L$ Ap v$idp S>V$gp `Z Apr\L$ L$pcpX$p \ep R> s "lpBV$ L$pgf' Ny_Npfp_p R>, S>d_u `pk byr^_ R>. S>Ap kdpS>dp "lpriepf' NZpe R> A_ S>Ap rinZ_u r$A `Z KQ `lpep R>. Ap hN L$ped Ap v$i_p A\s_ cpf _yL$kp_ `lpQpX$u, rkV$d `f\u gpL$p_p rhpk spX$u _pMhp_u hr L$fu R>. L$d L$ sApA `psp_u byr_p dp hp\ Mpsf _L$pfpdL$ D`epN L$ep R>. A_ Aphp "lpBV$ L$pgf' A`fp^uAp_p _pdp\u v$i_u kpdpe S>_sp kpfu fus hpL$a R>.

v$i_u ApdS>_sp A^pfu Apgd\ue Msf_pL$ Aphp Ny_Npfp_u epv$udp\u AL$ AL$ S>Z_ epv$ L$fi A_ s_p bpepX$V$p Zi sp kdpS>dp dp_, dpcp, rsW$p sd S> DQ v$fS> rbfpS>su Ap e[sApdp L$pC QpV$X$ AL$pDV$V$, L$`_u k$V$fu, A[S>r_ef, X$bg NeyAV$ L$ apB_p[ieg Ak`V$ sfuL$ šhp dmi.

Ap gpL$p kpfu Ahu pai_g L$pfrL$v$} ^fphsp lphp R>sp `kp_p gpcdp Aphu S>C_ Apr\L$ Ny_p ApQfu bk R>. kps kps `Y$uAp_ fgdR>g L$fphu iL$ sV$gy ^_ AL$Wy$ L$ep `R>u `Z sAp_u `kp dpV$_u c|M kspjpC _\u. $r`ep S>dp L$fhp_u Nffursdp Ap gpL$p Ahp fs \C e R> L$ sd_ epg `Z _\u flsp L$ sAp L$iyL$ MpVy$ L$fu fp R>, L$pfZ L$ sd_p Ecp L$fgp kdpS>dp `kp S> khkhp lpe R>. ep buSy> b^y S> gpL$p c|gu S>sp lpe R>, L$pfZ L$ `kp sd_u BS>s, rscp, dp_ A_ dp`v$X$ b_u Nep lpe R>.

Al] AL$ hps DgM_ue R> L$ Aphp "lpBV$ L$pgf' A`fp^uAp_ blz ApR>p gpL$p Ny_Npf NZ R>. Ap`Zp v$i_p L$pev$pAp_u ApV$uO|V$u Ahu sp cv$u R> L$ Arcdey_p kps L$pW$p sp Al] epf_pe `pf \C e. Ap`Zp v$idp L$pC ApdApv$du_y `pL$uV$ dpf_pf e[s L$ bkp-`pQkp_u Qpfu L$f_pfp ku^p S>gdp e R> A_ M|b dpf MpC_, Nv$u Npmp kpcmu_ A_ bu "Qp-`pZu'_p _pd lf-`v$fkp $r`ep cV$dp Ap`u_ ZQpf qv$hk L$ AW$hpqX$e L$v$pQ Ry>V$L$pfp dmhu iL$, `fsy bL$p `pk\u gp__p _pd rkVdqV$L$gu g|V L$f_pfp DpN`rsAp_ L$p_|_ L$C _\u L$fu iL$sp.

bkp $r`ep_u MygApd Qpfu L$f_pfp "Qpf' A_ $p. bkp L$fpX$_u R>sft`X$u L$f_pfp "DpN`rs' L$lhpe R>. bL$r^fpZ_u kyrh^p_ _pd Aphp Abš $r`ep_u Qpfu L$ g|V_u$ rkV$d kV$ \C NC R>. Al] šhp_y A R> L$ L$pZ h^y Msf_pL$ R>, `gp `pL$uV$dpf Qpf L$ bL$_ g|V$u, L$`_u Xy$bpX$u `psp_y Of cf_pf `gp "lpBV$ L$pgf' DpN`rs?

iy v$i_u S>_sp Z R> L$ A "lpBV$ L$pgf' gpL$p L$pZ R>? lp, L$v$pQ Ap gpL$p ApS>_p AX$fhX$_p Ny_Npfp\u `Z Msf_pL$ R>, L$d L$ AX$fhX$_p NyX$pAp sp dp Aduf A_ kd hN `pk\u b _bf_p `kp g|V$ R>, sd_u hr\u kpdpe bQsL$pf L$ fpL$pZL$pf g|V$psp _\u L$ `R>u Ap NyX$pAp_u hr\u h`pf-DpN_p rhpk L$QX$psp _\u. A_ kp\u dlh_u hps sp A L$ v$i_p A\s D`f sAp Ly$W$pfpOps _\u L$fsp.

h^ydp, Ap g|V$pfp sp ApmMpe R>, `L$X$pe R>, AL$pDV$fdp dfpe R>, bQu e sp S>gdp e R>. epf "A^pfuApgd'_p Ap Ny_Npfp\u `Z cep_L$ A_ šMdu Ny_Npf Ap "lpBV$ L$pgf hN'_ L$lu iL$pe. L$pfZ L$ sAp kp\u dpV$p fp$plu R>, blzrirns A_ pai_g NZpsp hN_p Ap Ny_Npfp, _pZpL$ue ehlpfp_u ApV$uO|V$u A_ L$pev$p_u N|QhZpdp\u R>V$L$bpfuAp ip^u_ R>V$L$u S>C_ hpfhpf pV$L$sp fl R>. sAp L$fpX$p $r`ep_p NpV$pmp L$fu_, hL$ugp_ v$f AL$ dygpL$ps dpV$ $. `pQ gpM Ap` R>.

v$idp \egp Apr\L$ L$pcpX$p, _pZpL$ue NffursAp, MpV$p ehlpfp, lhpgp fL$V$, L$fQpfu, fpL$pZL$pfp_ A_ bf_ NfdpN v$pfhp_u hr, AX$f L$ Aphf BhpBtkN, c$pQpf, cmkm, `[gL$ BeyAp\u gC pBhV$ gkdV$_u QpgpL$u, qaX$ qX$`prTV$p_p qX$apV$, ifp_u Nffurs L$ Npgdpg A_ Aphu A_L$rh^ hrApdp kq$e fl_pf Ap hNdp dpV$p cpN_p gpL$p_y AeyL$i_g hprgqaL$i_ KQy fy R>.

Ap gpL$p `pk byrL$pie `Z h^y R>. A_ L$pev$p_u kdS>\u gC DQ sf_u hN ^fphhp_u bpbsdp Ap gpL$p ApNm R>. Ap gpL$p_u _urs-^d, rkps A_ Apv$i A dp `kp S> fp R>. L$d L$ sd_ Mbf R> L$ `kp\u b^y S> Mfuv$u iL$pe R> A_ kp\u dlh_u hps sp A R> L$ Ap v$i_p L$p_|__u kepb^ R>V$L$bpfuAp sAp Z R> A_ `kp\u sAp L$p_|_u r_Zpsp_ Mfuv$u gC_ Ny_pAp_u kdp\u L$C fus R>V$L$u S>hy L$ r_v$pj kprbs \C S>hy A blz kpfu fus Z R>.

1994-95dp ifbfdp L$pcpX$_p Brslpk fQpep, S>dp L$pmp L$fZp le DdfpC fp R>. fpspfps gM`rs b_u S>hp_y k`_y v$fL$_u ApMpdp qv$_v$lpX$ v$MpX$hpdp Ap L$pmp L$fZpA eyhp_p_ Ahy Ogy gNpX$y L$ k$pL$ue hr h^u, bpNk ifp R>p`hp\u gC ifp Qpfhp, ifp kp\ apS>fu L$fhu hNf S>hu NfL$p_|_u hrAp ep`L$ b_u NC. Apr\L$ A`fp^p kb^u `pguk rhcpNdp Ny_Npfp_u epv$udp eyhp_p_u kep h^hp gpNu.

ifbf_u s_p Nfgpc ghp lpBV$ L$pgf Ny_Npfp NZpsp lpBgu hprgapBX$ eyhp_pA L$pNmp `f pS>V$p b_phu lfS>_sp `pk\u L$fpX$p_p rlkpb _pZp Ecp L$ep, eyeyAg aX$p_u bpgbpgp h^u sdp gpMp_u kepdp _p_p A_ kpdpe BhV$fpA fpL$pZ L$ey, S>dp sAp_p rhpk s|V$p. bfdp cphp_ QNphu gpMp BhV$fp_ NfdpN v$pfhpdp dpV$fp, Ap`fV$fp_u kpW$NpW$_ kamsp dmu A_ bL$p_p _pZp_p vy$fy`epN S>hu bpbspA kdN bf `f afu AL$ hpf KX$p Op L$ep, S>_ Apr\L$ A`fp^ NZhp L$ L$d A l L$pev$p_u `p\uApdp `$ L$fpey _\u.

lpBV$ L$pgf Ny_Npf ifp_p cphp kp\ fds fdu lfp BhV$fp_ NfdpN v$pf R> A_ fpL$pZL$pfp sdp akpe R> L$ g|V$pe R> A_ `gp MgpX$u bf_p dpV$p MgpX$u NZpe R> S> "byg'_p _pd `|e R>. s_u kp\ kL$mpegp sdpd_ L$pC epfe gyQp L$ g|V$pfp L$lsy _\u, L$pfZ L$ sAp "kam' rbT_kd_ L$ DpN`rs NZpe R>.

L$pNm `f pS>V$ b_phu S>_sp_p L$fpX$p $r`ep QpD L$fu S>_pfp dpV$fp_ Al] L$p_|_ L$C S> L$fu iL$sp _\u. bL$ "EgV$p Qpf L$pV$hpg L$p v$X$'_u S>d Al] fpL$pZL$pf S> d|Mdp M`u e R>. Aphp gcpNy dpV$fp L$ kplrkL$p_ bfdp d|X$u Ecp L$fhp_u `fhp_Nu Ap`_pf L$ Ap dpV$_u eh\p_y ApepS>_ L$f_pf gpL$p sp b^p Z kph r_v$pj, sd_u sp L$pC S>hpbv$pfu S> _l]? epv$ fl Ap b^p lpBV$ L$pgf A_ kp^pfu sd S> KQu `v$hu ^fph_pfp lpe R>, S>ApA rkV$d_p R>X$QpL$ vy$fy`epN \hp v$u^p lpe R>.

rhv$idp _pZp V$pkaf L$fhp_u L$ rhv$iu lwqX$epdZ_u Nffurs L$f_pfp Al] dpV$p r_L$pkL$pf_y qbfyv$ `pd R>, lL$uL$sdp sAp `psp_u Nffurs Y$pL$u v$C_ kfL$pf_ A_ rkV$d_ R>sfsp lpe R>. "afp' L$ "adp'_p cN L$f_pf, Apeps-r_L$pk_urs s\p r_edp_u R>V$L$bpfuAp_p D`epN L$fu lf rsšfu_ g|V$sp Ap hN byripmu sd S> hNv$pf `Z lpe R>.

L$fpX$_u L$fQpfu L$ S>L$psQpfu L$fu v$i_p A\s_ L$psf_pfp A_ c$pQpf_u ApN_ `h_ Ap`_pfp sdpd Apr\L$ Ny_Npfp kdpS>dp ES>mp b_u af R>, L$d L$ sAp_u `pk `kp \L$u `phf R>, hN R>, cph R>. L$p_|_ Aphp gpL$p_ h^y L$C L$fu iL$sp _\u. L$p_|_dp flsu kepb^ R>V$L$bpfuAp_p D`epN \sp fl R>. `kp_u spL$ps W$ hL$ugp dmu e R>. k_p dyL$pd ky^u `lpQsp hjp_p hjp gpN R>.

rls_ v$gpg_ 1992_u OV$_p_u k ldZp \C. šL$ k_p v$pMgp AL$gv$pL$g R>, epf Apr\L$ A`fp^p L$fu R>V$L$u S>_pfpAp_u epv$u OZu OZu dpV$u R>. OZp sp L$p_|__p L$ `$ r_edp_p Acph Apr\L$ A`fp^u NZpsp `Z _\u A_ AV$g S> sAp kdpS> kdn Ny_Npf sfuL$ Ecfsp _\u, bgL r_Zps, r_`yZ, pai_g, kam rbT_kd_-DpN`rs sfuL$ Ecf R>. L$fyZsp sp A hps_u R> L$ Ap`Zp v$idp L$V$gpL$ Apr\L$ A`fp^p_u L$pev$pdp epep `Z _\u.

ifbf kp\ kL$mpegu sdpdsdpd e[s_ 1992, 1998 A_ dpQ 2001_p kdeNpmp bfpbf epv$ li. Apr\L$ L$pcpX$p_ L$pfZ kfL$pf_p L$V$gpe ky^pfp_p `Ngp AV$L$u Nep, dlh_p L$pdL$pš Mpfc QX$p, Apr\L$ ky^pfp_u Nrs L$V$gu lv$ ky^u dv$ `X$u NC. iy Ap fp$ue rls_u rhfy _ NZpe?

Al] S>_sp ep_ Ap` L$ Apr\L$ L$pcpX$p A_ Apr\L$ Ny_Npfp `psp_u Apr\L$ spL$ps_ L$pfZ `psp_p Ny_pAp_ Y$pL$u v$hpdp kam \C S>sp lpe R>. A_ kdpS>dp dp_dpcp kp\ afsp lpe R>. kdpS> Aphp gcpNyAp_ ApmMu ghp_u S>$f R> A_ Mpk sp A epv$ fpMhy S>$fu R> L$ Aphp lpBV$ L$pgf Ny_Npfp S> L$pev$p_p kp\u h^y Nfgpc DW$ph R>, L$d L$ Apr\L$ A`fp^uAp kpd Ap`Zp v$idp L$X$L$ L$p_|_ L$ L$X$L$ k_p v$pMgp _\u. sAp `f `pguk `Z lp\ D`pX$u iL$su _\u. A_ AV$g S> Ap hN "BTu d_u' A_ "apV$ d_u' dpV$ Apr\L$ Ny_pAp L$fsp fl R>. A_ v$i_p A\s kp\ QX$p L$fsp fl R>. A_ kp\u Ncuf bpbs sp A R> L$ sAp ded hN_ S> kp\u h^y R>sf R>.

c$pQpf-gpQfyihsdp rhdp Ap`Zp v$i OZp "ApNm' _uL$mu Nep R> epf Apr\L$ A`fp^pdp `Z Ap`Zp v$i "ApNm' _uL$mu e _l] A šhp_u S>hpbv$pfu kfL$pf_u sp R> S>, `fsy Ap`Zu v$fL$_u `Z Mfu.

v$i_p rhL$pk_u NpX$u_ ApX$ `pV$ QX$phu v$sp L$ AL$dps L$fu Opeg L$fu v$sp Aphp Apr\L$ A`fp^p-L$pcpX$pdp kfL$pfu Ar^L$pfuAp `Z kp\u dpV$p Ny_Npfpdp_p AL$ R>.

kfL$pf š MfMf Apr\L$ ky^pfp L$fhp lpe A_ s_p amp kpdpe ky^u `lpQpX$hp lpe sp Apr\L$ L$pcpX$ e h^ydp h^y L$X$L$ hgZ A`_phhy šCA.

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ljv$ dlspA L$C fus L$mp L$fu lsu
ifbf_p b L$pcpX$p_u kpesp A_ saphsp : 1992_y ljv$ dlsp_y, 2001_y L$s_ `pfM_y
lh ifbfpdp DW$dZp A_ Ap`Ops_p slgL$p

L$pcpX$pdp fp$ueL$s bL$p `Z `pR>m _\u
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L$s_ `pfM_ $. 380 L$fpX$ Q|L$hhp Apv$i
L$s_ `pfM L$pcpX$ 6400 L$fpX$_y R>?
L$s_ `pfM_u du_ Af dygshu
L$s_ `pfM bL$ Apa B[X$ep kpd bv$_nu_p v$php dpX$i
L$s_ `pfM_ Adv$phpv$ gC S>hpi
qL$fuV$ `pfM_u kubuApB pfp `|R>`fR>
L$s_ `pfM `psp_u c|g L$b|g R>
L$prsL$ `pfM_u ^f`L$X$ : L$s_ `pfM qfdpX$ `f
L$s_ `pfM_p `kp S> L$ped bpgsp
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"L$s_ `pfM_ s_u ^f`L$X$_u Z _lpsu'
L$s_ `pfM_u kubuApB pfp ^f`L$X$

dp^h`yfp bL$_u h^y ky_phZu 28du S|>_
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gpbg V$V$-eyV$uApB bL$ hQ šX$pZ _l] \pe
v$u_p dlsp_ dybC ifbf_p bpX$dp\u v|$f L$fpep
dp^h`yfp bL$ ifv$gpgp_ du_Nufu hNf L$fgy $. 1000 L$fpX$ D`fps_y r^fpZ
kbudp\u dlsp_ lV$phhp_u sepfu
dp^h`yfp bL$ L$hu fus dyL$gudp Aphu?
bL$_u _yL$kp_u 843 L$fpX$ $r`ep ky^u_u \C iL$ R>
L$gL$p ifbf_p bpX$ fp_pdy Apey
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L$pcpX$pdp fp$ueL$s bL$p `Z `pR>m _\u
dp^h`yfp bL$_ L$pfZ bL$p_ $. 207 L$fpX$_y _yL$kp_
dp^h`yfp bL$_p `y_hk_ dpV$ krdrs_u fQ_p
dp^h`yfp bL$ kv$c L$iycpC `V$g_p eihs tklp_ spL$uv$_p `
dp^h`yfp bL$_p qX$`pqTV$k_ dv$v$ dmi
Adv$phpv$dp b ifv$gpgp qX$apV$f \i
dp^h`yfp_p fdi `fuM_ 9 Arg ky^u_p qfdpX$
fdi `fuM : dkpgp_p h`pfudp\u bL$_p Qfd_
dp^h`yfp bL$_p Qfd_ kubuApC_ ifZ Aphu Nep
dp^h`yfp bL$ du_Nufu hNf $. 1000 L$fpX$_y r^fpZ L$fgy
dp^h`yfp bL$_p hpL$ NyS>fps_u 150 S>V$gu klL$pfu bL$p_p `Z EW$dZp?
dp^h`yfp bL$ rhi Zhp S>hy b^y S>
qfTh bL$ : dp^h`yfp bL$ bapd r^fpZ L$fgy
dp^h`yfp bL$ afu i$ \C
qfTh bL$ pfp dp^h`yfp bL$_p Aen A_ d_tS>N qX$fV$f kpd `pgukaqfepv$ v$pMg
dp^h`yfp bL$_y L$pdL$pS> k`X$
Adv$phpv$_u dp^h`yfp bL$dp qX$`pqTV$k_p ^kpfp!

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?

dyhuV$pBd : B^f D^f L$u N`k` qfey dygpL$ps kdpQpf QQp QV$
apV$p auQf rhgjZ Arcpe rhhpv$ ApabuV$ dybpfL$bpv$u

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