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dpv$u Ad_ L$pC kšNpdp _p šCA, L$iycpC_u R>phZu_p Ap d lsp. iL$ftkl hpOgpA bmhp L$ep epf `Z L$iycpCA v$pj_p V$p`gp Ap v$pY$u^pfu 52 hj_p Sy>hp_ dpZk (cpfsue fpS>L$pfZdp sp v|$^dg eyhp_ S>) `f _pep lsp, "_f dpv$u dpf NyS>fpsdp _ šCA.' d_ kM ipk_ L$fhp v$sp _\u Ahu L$iycpC_u aqfepv$ lsu, L$d Z `ps L$pC dpV$p hluhV$ L$fu _pMhp_p lpe.

1998dp afu cpS>` Q|V$pep epf L$iycpC, S>d_u aqfepv$ lsu L$ "cpC dpfp ky hpL$' sd_ Z dsv$pfp_p epe dep lsp A_ AL$ kpdpe L$np_p _spdp\u AQp_L$ `prgqV$L$g lhuhBV$ b_u Nep lsp. ApS> sd_ A S> cpf Xy$bpX$u Nep R>, L$d L$ Ap Z hjdp NyS>fpsdp sdZ kp\u h^y _bmy, dv$, dpvgy, Y$N^X$p rh_p_y ipk_ Apey lsy.

bu bpSy> NyS>fpsdp cpS>`_p dpmp S>dZ sZMgp, spsZp A_ spf hX$ b_pep lsp A_ sdp cpS>`_p bQpAp qL$gqL$gpV$ L$fsp \ep lsp s _f dpv$u_y NyS>fpsdp kpdey \C fy R>. AL$ S>dp_p lsp epf fp_p lpriepf, sfhqfep `Z spap_u fpS>Ly$hf_ fpS>dlg_p L$phpv$phpdp sX$u`pf L$fhpdp Aphsp. s fpS>Ly$hf `R>u S>Ngdp Ap`bm bplzbm `v$p L$fsp A_ AL$ qv$hk `psp_p lL$ S>_p `f lpe s fpS>Npv$u bm`|hL$ `X$phu gsp.

NyS>fpsdp `Z AL$ sX$u`pf ss_iu_ \hp S>C fp R>. NyS>fps_u Npv$u `f Apd sp `gp gprS>L$ dpZ _f dpv$u_p S> lL$ lsp. 1995dp sdZ NyS>fpsdp oprshpv$ A_ rlvy$hpv$_y AV$gy kfk kduL$fZ NpW$hu Apey L$ cpS>`_ bMp \C Nep lsp. _f dpv$u_u fpdMuQX$u kp_ kv$u NC lsu.

_f dpv$u_p Ap AL$ L$pe$d lsp. Npddp gpL$p `ps`psp_p Of\u dN-QpMp L$ cmhgu MuQX$u gC Aph. s_ kpdyrlL$ fkpX$pdp fp^hpdp Aph A_ Npd_p `lpQsp gpL$p_p Of\u Aphgy Ou sdp fX$u_ kp kp\ dmu_ kpv$ g. hpcprhL$ fus S> Apdp AL$\u h^y oprs_p gpL$p Aphu Nep lpe. kp_p Of\u Aphgu kpdNu kdfk \C_ fpdMuQX$u b_u lpe. dpv$uA `Z NyS>fps_u oprsAp_p dsv$pfp_ kdfk L$fu_ sd_y S> Ou Y$pmpey s cpS>`_p W$pddp Tugu gu^y lsy.

A Sy>v$u hps R> L$ kp dep `R>u Ap gpL$iplu_p S>dp_p lsp AV$g fpS>L$yhf Myv$ Npv$u `f _ bW$p A_ qL$NdL$f b_u_ fp A_ L$Zbu oprsdp S>ep lphp_y _kub ^fphsp L$iycpC `V$g dye ^p_ b_u Nep lsp. A hps `Z Sy>v$u R> L$ dpv$uA S> kpdpqS>L$ kdfksp_u MuQX$u pfp rlvy$hpv$_p epk L$ep lsp s_ cpS>`_p L$X$hp-ghp _spApA `V$ghpv$dp afhu _pep lsp.

sdp hpL$ _f dpv$u_p `Z _lpsp. _f dpv$uA qv$lu eyr_hrkV$udp\u fpeipdp Ad. A. L$ey R>. _f dpv$u fpeip_p rhp\} A_ dpq_V$f R>, sAp L$C kdpS>ip_p Aepky _\u. sd_u fpdMuQX$u kpdprS>L$ kdfksp dpV$ _lpsu, `Z fpS>L$ue kp dpV$_u lsu.

NyS>fps_p cpS>`_p (Apd sp v$icf_p cpS>`_p) _spAp\u rh`fus _f dpv$u rhQpfiug, byrhs, QbfpL$, QL$pf A_ L$peLy$im R>. dyp_ A_ gpL$p_p d__ kdS>hp_u sd_pdp AphX$s R>. NyS>fps cpfs_y Ap^yr_L$ fpe R>, R>sp Al]_p gpL$pdp rlvy$h_p dyp Qpgu iL$ R> s hps dpv$u_ kdC NC lsu. NyS>fps A fus cpS>` dpV$ epNipmp b_u fy R>.

dsp dmhhp_p epN _f dpv$uA NyS>fpsdp L$fu bspep s `R>u rlvu `$pdp A_ dlpfp$dp `Z L$pd Apep lsp, `Z NyS>fps_ sp cpS>` ipk_ (hluhV$) dpV$ `Z Apv$i fpe b_phu_ epNipmp b_phhp dpNsp lsp. sdp cpS>` ceL$f fus r_am Nep R>, L$d L$ cpS>`_p _spAp Ap hjpdp rhfp^ L$fhp rkhpe L$C S> iuep _\u. hluhV$_y hlpZ Qgphhp_y L$pd sd_p dpV$ L$`fy lsy.

šL$ _f dpv$u `Z L$hp hluhV$ Ap`u iL$i s šhp_y bpL$u S> R>. Adpfp su iugp c$ kp\ hps L$fsp sd_p S> AL$ V$L$v$pf L$fgu hps fkv$ R>. "dpv$u_ L$C NyS>fpsdp ipk_ (Nh_k) dpV$ `kv$ _\u L$fpep. sd_y rkgi_ sp Bgi_ dpV$ \ey R>.'

kyoS>_p, dpV$ sd kp_dp kd gš L$ NyS>fps_ L$C kpfp hluhV$ Ap`hp dpV$ cpS>` _sh `qfhs_ _\u L$fu fp. sd_p A epN sp kv$sf r_am Nep R> A_ lh dpX$hpm S> L$fhpdp Apep R>. _sh `qfhs_ Q|V$Zu shp dpV$, kp dpV$ \C fy R>.

sp `Z dpv$u_u `kv$Nu_ dp A kv$cdp šhp L$fsp rhipm kv$c `Z šC iL$pe sd R>. dpv$u_u rhQpfkfZu cg ApfAkAk_p L$$f rlvy$h\u cprhs lpe, sd_p rhje rlvy$h_u kpdprS>L$ ky^pfZp L$ ^prdL$ Dpf _\u. dpv$u_u rhQpfkfZu kpgnu R>, fpS>L$pfZgnu R> R>sp sd_u `kv$Nu ApS> Nyfyhpf R>hV$ \C S>i sp NyS>fpsdp fpS>L$ue D`fps kpdprS>L$ fus `Z sd_y dlh li.

_f dpv$u dye ^p_ b_i sp NyS>fps_ OZp hMs AL$ Ahp _sp dmi S> `psp_u AphX$s, rscp, e[sh A_ ApL$fu dl_s_p L$pfZ Ap DQ Apk_ `lpep lpe. Aepf ky^u NyS>fps_ dp oprshpv$ A_ `n_p ApsqfL$ fpS>L$pfZ A_ S|>\b^u dpZ S> dye ^p_ dmsp fp R>. dpv$u `lgu hpf r_cm fus dye ^p_ b_gp dpZk li.

dp^htkl kpgL$u Mpd_u r\efu_p Ap^pf `R>ps hNp_p _sp b_u_ dye ^p_ bep lsp. Apqv$hpku dsp_p šf Adftkl Qp^fu dpV$p _sp bep R> A_ Qud_ `V$g A_ L$. k. `V$g L$X$hp-ghp L$Zbu-`pV$uv$pf dsp_ L$pfZ dye ^p_ bep lsp. Ad sp Qp^fu A_ `V$g Nfub Ly$Vy$bdp\u ApNm Aphu_ ApV$gp dpV$p lpء `lpep R>. `Z Aepf bdp\u L$pC_ Nfub, Apqv$hpku L$ MX|$s L$lu iL$uA _l] shu kpbudp b_ dlpg R>.

bu bpSy> _f dpv$u ApfAkAk_p Ag QpfL$_u S>d l ky^u AqL$Q_ fp R>. hX$_Nf_p Nfub `R>ps rlvy$ OpQu_p Ap v$uL$fp ApS> 52 hj OZu gpbu dS>g L$p`u_ `Z kpbu cpNhsp _\u \ep. L$iycpC_ sp AL$ v$uL$fp (cfs) A_ AL$ S>dpC (de|f) `Z R>. L$ipbp`p kp_iu_ \ep sdp b__ gpc \ep li L$v$pQ, Ap`Z_ `pL$u Mbf _\u, `Z `n_ _yL$kp_ \ey R> s_u sp Mpsfu R>.

_f dpv$u_ Ly$Vy$b_u S>m _\u. dpv$u_p g_ _p_`Zdp \C Nep lsp, `Z kO_ hfu Nep `R>u sdZ Ap S>mdp\u `psp_ dys L$ep R>. sd_p `_u l `Z hX$_Nfdp sd_u fpl šC_ bW$p R> Ad d_pe R>, sd_u Ap ANs bpbs_u sd_p A_yepeuAp `Z L$v$u lfdp QQp L$fsp _\u.

dpv$u_p dpsp `Z dlkpZpdp kpdpe ApfX$udp fl R>. sd_ Qpf cpCAp R>, sd_p rhi dprlsu cpe S> L$pC_ R>. 17-9-1949dp hX$_Nfdp S>ep, r`sp v$pdpv$fv$pk A_ dpsp lufpbl_. p\rdL$ rinZ ep gC h^y Aepk Adv$phpv$dp L$ep A_ L$pgS> qv$ludp. fpS>L$pfZdp `Z sAp Oτ fMX$p. NyS>fpsdp\u L$dp gC S>hpep `R>u lqfepZpdp sdZ kam dpfQp b_pep lsp A_ Apqfkp_p lhpgp `Z sdZ kpfu fus kcpep lsp.

hX$_Nfdp cep `R>u _f dpv$u Adv$phpv$ Aphu Nep lsp. kO_u ipMp\u OX$pegp dpv$uA Adv$phpv$dp kq$e fpS>L$pfZ_p hpv$ `Z Qpep. 1965dp L$pL$qfep hpX$dp sd_ S>_kO_p du b_phpep lsp.

s S>dp_p l S>_kO_p _lpsp R>sp dpv$u_u r_W$p\u hks NS> NX$L$f A_ _p\pgpg TOX$p cprhs \ep lsp. NyS>fpsdp kO_p _spAp S> ApS>_p cpS>`_p `pepdp R>. dpv$u r_erds L$fu `uW$ ipMpdp S>sp lsp.

dpv$u Ad.A._p Aepk L$fhp dpV$ qv$lu eyr_hrkV$u S>sp fp lsp, `Z Aepk `|fp L$fu_ afu kq$e fpS>L$pfZdp T`gphhp Adv$phpv$ Aphu Nep lsp. AprhL$p dpV$ sdZ NyS>fps AkV$u L$p`pfi__u V$pa L$V$u_ Qgphhp gu^u lsu. L$V$u_ S> sd_y Of b_u Ney lsy. kp\pkp\ ipMp A_ S>_kOdp `Z sAp kq$e lsp. šL$ \pX$p hMsdp S> sd_u r_W$p šC_ NX$L$f A_ TOX$p_u cgpdZ\u sd_ ApfAkAkdp azgV$pBd QpfL$ sfuL$ gC ghpep lsp.

QpfL$ sfuL$ lh sdZ `psp_y r_hpk\p_ Y$pfbfdp Aphgp X$p. lX$Nhpf ch_dp S> L$fu _pey lsy, ep sdZ blz hjp L$pY$p R>. 1980dp NyS>fpsdp S>_kOdp\u cpS>` bep. cpS>`_ `psp_u `pMp rhspfhp _hp dpZkp_u S>$f lsu AV$g kO_p eyhp_p_ `n_ gp_ `f A`psp lsp. A S> fus 1985dp _f dpv$u_ cpS>`_ gp_ `f Ap`hpdp Apep lsp.

QpfL$ sfuL$ kOdp risb fus OX$pegp dpv$u cpS>`_ blz L$pddp Apep lsp. dpv$u_p hcph spR>X$p d_pe R> A_ gpL$p_ dpY$ Aph s L$lu v$hp dpV$ bv$_pd R>. `Z L$v$pQ s hMs sd_pdp l Arcdp_ _lpsy Apey AV$g L$peL$fpdp s gpL$re b_sp S>sp lsp.

dpv$u_u L$X$hu hpsp L$peL$fp_ kpfu gpNsu lsu, L$d L$ dpv$u e|lfQ_p A_ _V$hL$ NpW$hhpdp dplf lsp. Adv$phpv$ eyr_rk`g L$p`pfi_ cpS>` Ap e|l A_ _V$hL$_p Ap^pf S> L$pNk `pk\u ApQL$u gu^y lsy. dpv$u_ Q|V$ZuAp shp_p fsp Al]\u dep lsp.

L$pNk_p ipk_\u gpL$p ip dpV$ _pfpS> R> A_ Mpd_u r\efu_p L$pfZ NyS>fps_p ES>rmeps hN L$C fus `psp_ kprhlu_ A_ychhp gpep R> s_p AZkpf L$v$pQ _f dpv$u_ kp\u `lgp Apep li. cpS>`_u R>p` Apd `Z `lgu\u S> bpZp-hpqZep A_ ilfu gpL$p_p `n_u flu R>. s _V$hL$_ rhrl` A_ kO bpX$_p rlvy$h\u dpv$uA NpdX$p ky^u rhspey.

L$pNkdp `^p `X$gp shp hQ `psp_p lp\dp kp epfe _l] Aph Ad kd_ kpdprS>L$ A_ Apr\L$ fus Nrs L$fu flgp `V$g kdpS> `Z cpS>` sfa ApL$jpep A_ s_p L$pfZ 1990dp cpS>`_ Mpku 60 bW$L$p dmu lsu. L$pNkdp\u S> R|>V$p `X$gp `Z lh S>_sp v$m_p _pd NyS>fpsdp ApNm Aphgp Qud_cpC `V$g kp\ kdS|>su L$fu_ keys kfL$pf fQhpdp Aphu.

kp_p Ap `lgp hpv$ cpS>` Qpep lsp. šL$ dpv$u_u _S>f sp k`|Z kp sfa lsu AV$g sdZ NyS>fps_p S> oprshpv$ L$pNk_ blz L$pd Aphsp lsp s cpS>`_p apev$pdp hpmhp dpV$ A_ B_ aV$ oprshpv$_ v$bphu v$hp dpV$ rlvy$hpv$_ ApNm L$fhp Qpy.

cpS>`dp L$ue sf `Z lL$uL$sdp Ap S> S>pS>lv$ Qpgu flu lsu. Ag. L$. AX$hpZu hpS>`eu_p ky$ky$ Qlfp_p \p_ cpS>`_ AL$ Ap$dL$ rlvy$ Qlfp `lfphhp_u hsfZdp lsp. kpd_p\_p dqv$f\u Aepep epp L$pY$hpdp Aphu A_ s `R>u sp L$ A_ NyS>fps b__p fpS>L$pfZdp ^fd|m\u afapfp \C Nep.

_f dpv$u, hX$_Nf_p AL$ kpdpe R>pL$fp Ap afapfpdp lufp b_u Nep. dpv$uA 1995_u Q|V$Zudp rhrl` A_ bS>fN v$m S>hp kO_p L$peL$fp_ `Z `fv$p `pR>m\u L$pd gNpX$p lsp.

v$pMgp sfuL$ cpS>`_p Ddv$hpf L$pC Npddp kcp L$fhp S>hp_p lpe sp s_u `lgp S> rhrl`_p AL$ Npfnp f\ ep `lpep lpe. rhrl`_p dpZkp dp Npfnp, ^dfnp A_ kL$rs fnp_u hps L$fu_ S>sp fl. ep S> `R>u cpS>`_u kcp epe. sdp NyS>fps_p rhL$pk_u A_ kpdprS>L$ L$epZ_u A_ L$pNk_p fpedp agpegu NyX$pNufu_u S> hps lpe. s `R>u L$v$pQ fpӡ bS>fN v$m_u `Z kcp A S> Npddp lpe iL$ A_ sdp eyhp_p_ kpdprS>L$ bv$uAp v|$f L$fhp A_ hv$iu, hphgbu A_ rhv$irhfp^_p `pW$ cZphpep lpe. gpL$p_p d_dp AL$ L$p[b_i_ A_pepk S> fQpC e.

dpv$u AL$ kpfp hsp NZpe R>. šL$ sd_u Ap hL$sh i[s kO_p A_ cpS>`_p L$peL$fp_ h^y ApL$j R>, _ L$V$gu ApL$j R> s šhp_y fl R>. `Z L$peL$fpdp sd_p ApL$fp hcph R>sp sAp gpL$re R>. sAp _p_pdp _p_p L$peL$fp_ _pd\u Z R> A_ sd_u `fhp L$f R>. cpS>`_p ^p_p\u lX$^|s \egp L$peL$fp dpv$u_p ApNd_\u fp \ep R>.

kNW$_dp `L$pegp dpv$uA dye ^p_ sfuL$ hluhV$ L$fhp_p R>. kNW$_ A_ hluhV$ AL$ _\u AV$gy sdZ kdS>hy `X$i. kNW$_dp sp kp_p ApNm S>sp gpc ghp dpNsp Apsyf L$peL$fp lpe R> S> sdpfy L$y L$fhp sepf \pe. kfL$pfdp `pL$u _pL$fu ^fphsp A_ `Npf Mpsp L$dQpfu A_ fpS>L$ue $M šC_ kY$ afhsp Adgv$pfp lpe R>. s sdpfy L$y Ahmy S> h^pf L$f.

NyS>fps_y hluhV$u s Apd sp Aepf\u S> L$pNku ipk_ dpV$ sepf \C Ney R> epf dpv$u sd_ L$V$gu lv$ `gpV$u iL$i? buSy>, L$iycpC_p Y$ugpY$a fpS>dp cpS>`u ^p_p dpS> L$fsp lsp. L$X$L$ dpq_V$f dpv$u b^p ^p_p `f _S>f fpMi s_p\u L$V$gpe_ AL$mpdZ \hp_u R>.

sp `Z `psp_p cpS>`_ afu kp A`phhp dpV$ A_ ipk_ v$Mph Mpsf `Z kpfy bsphhp_p šidp _f v$pdpv$fv$pk dpv$u NyS>fps_p rir\g hluhV$u s_ Qs_hsy L$fu iL$i sp fpe_ S>fuL$ apev$p \i. AL$ kde _bf h_ b_hp_u lpX$dp flgy NyS>fps L$. k. `V$g_p A_ hQ c$pQpfu fpS>`-L$pNk_p r_[$e ipk__ AL$ v$peL$p `pR>m ^L$gpC Ney R>.

_f dpv$u dp `psp_p `n `f S> _S>f _pMhp_ bv$g fpe `f _S>f fpMi sp sd_y S> cgy \i. NyS>fps L$C epNipmp _\u L$ NyS>fps_p gpL$p L$C Jv$f-bv$f _\u L$ s_p `f sd sdpfu hprleps rhQpfkfZu_p epNp L$fp. NyS>fpsuAp_ rlvy$h_p `Z hp^p _\u, `Z š s Dv$pfdshpv$u, Ap^yr_L$, kphrL$ Nrs dpV$_u lpe sp S>. _pN`yf V$pB` L$ bS>fN v$m V$pB` kL$rs_u fnp Ap g[kbg _ _l] M`.

_f dpv$u_ kamsp_y Arcdp_ R>. l ky^u sdZ `psp_u QX$su S> šC R>. AL$ e[s\u L$C ipk_ _\u Qpgsy A_ kpfp ^p_p_ R|>V$\u L$pd L$fhp v$hpe sp S> hluhV$ Qpg. dpv$uA sšܡj L$ ANs NZpAZNdp_ bpv$ fpMu_ ^p_p_ L$pd L$fhp v$hy šCi. sd_ gpef gpef L$l_pf dpZkdp rNyZu AphX$s lpe sp sd_ Npm MpC_ `Z fpMhp šCA Ahu kdS>Z ^fph_pf S> Ap S>dp_pdp L$C lpkg L$fu iL$ R>.

qv$lu L$ ey`u_u _sh `qfhs_ S>hp dL$-A`\u L$C cpmhpC NC _\u. NyS>fps_u sp s_p L$fsp h^y ipZu R>. _sp bv$ghp\u L$C dsv$pfp `psp_p cpS>` A_ Aepf ky^u_p s_p kv$sf r_am ipk_ rhi_p Arcpe bv$gu _pM. Aphsp 18 drl_p _fcpC_p dpv$uMp_p `f bfpbf _S>f fpMi A _$u.

NyS>fps_p _hp dye ^p_ _f dpv$u_u ANpD gu^gu Mpk dygpL$psp
_f dpv$u : AV$g sp Ap$dZ_u [\rsdp lsp
_f dpv$u : cpS>` Ap A[_`funpdp\u ldMd `pf Esfi

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?

dyhuV$pBd : B^f D^f L$u N`k` qfey dygpL$ps kdpQpf QQp QV$
apV$p auQf rhgjZ Arcpe rhhpv$ ApabuV$ dybpfL$bpv$u

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