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^ufycpC v$kpC : B[v$fp Np^u bu hMs kp `f Apep `R>u epesdp fpS>L$pfZuAp_u v$Mg i$ \C

rh$d hL$ug

kyud L$pV$_p epep^ui A_ v$i_p gp L$rdi__p Qfd_ flu Q|L$gp ^ufycpC Abpgpg v$kpC_y d|m hs_ kyfs _L$_y v$ulZ Npd. A ^|rmep Npddp ER>fgp ^ufy cpfs_p L$pev$p_u vy$r_ep_p DQ Apk_ L$hu fus `lpep s_u Al] lL$uL$sp fS|> \C R>.

_p_L$X$p Npd_u ^|mdp fdu_ dpV$p \egp A_pqhg "^ufy' AL$ qv$hk L$pev$p_u vy$r_epdp _pd fpi_ L$fi A_u L$`_p L$pC_ _lpsu. kyud L$pV$_p epep^ui sfuL$ ^ufycpC v$kpCA Ap`gp L$V$gpL$ kudprQl_$`u QyL$pv$pAp_ epe_u vy$r_epdp ApS> `Z epv$ L$fpe R>.

r_hr `R>u sL$pgu_ hX$p ^p_ fph Np^uA ^ufycpC_ ApNl L$fu_ gp L$rdi__p Qfd_ b_pep lsp. k`|Z r_hr `R>u ^ufycpC kyfsdp \peu \ep R>. NyS>fps_u L$d_kubu R> L$ NyS>fps_u L$pC kfL$pf_ ^ufycpC_p "qgNg bB_'_p D`epN L$fhp_p rhQpf Apep _\u. ApS> 80 hj_u Jdf `Z ^ufycpC ipfuqfL$ fus h\ R> A_ rhrh^ dygpL$psuAp_ dmsp fl R>. R>gp 50 hjpdp cpfs_u epe_u vy$r_ep_u bv$gpegu spkuf_p kpnu ^ufycpC Al] sd_y ley r_Qph R>.

r`sp_p ApNl_ L$pfZ hL$ug bep

lz epf L$pgS>dp cZsp lsp epf v$idp ANš_y ipk_ lsy. A hMs epes_ ANS> ipk__p suL$ sfuL$ NZhpdp Aphsy AV$g cZsu hMs hL$ug L$ epep^ui b_hp_p rhQpf L$ep _lpsp. A hMs rinL$_p ehkpe M|b dpcp_p NZpsp AV$g rinL$ b_hp_u BR>p lsu. bu.A. `|fy L$ep `R>u rinL$_u _pL$fu dmu e Ad lsu. `Npf Apaf \ep 60 $q`ep.

`fsy dpfp r`sp fhey qX$`pV$dV$_p qfV$peX$ dpdgsv$pf lsp. Ad_u BR>p lsu L$ lz hL$ug b_y. Ad_p ApNl_ L$pfZ lz gp L$pgS>dp v$pMg \ep. gp_u qX$Nu sp dmhu gu^u, `fsy hL$ugps_p ehkpedp [\f \hp dpV$ ApR>pdp ApR>p `pQ hj sp Of_p fpV$gp Mphp `X$, `fsy dpfp r`sp S>hp r`sp dmhp M|b dyL$g R>.

kyfsdp AdZ flhp dpV$ Of gu^y. gpBbfudp au cfu A_ k_v$_p `kp `Z Apep. kyfsdp Zusp hL$ug MXy$cpC v$kpC_ ep lz Sy>r_ef sfuL$ šX$pep A_ AdZ d_ 10 $r`ep_u au_p AL$ L$k Apep.

1946dp eyApfu_u 1gu spfuM\u d hL$ugps_u i$Aps L$fu. `lgp L$k Sy>Npf^pfp_p cN_p lsp. lz L$pev$p cZgp, `fsy Sy>Npf^pfp rhi L$pC epg _lpsp. lz gpBbfudp Nep. A hMs gpBbqfe_ sfuL$ AL$ M|b S> kfk kS>_ u dS>dyv$pf lsp. L$pmu V$p`u A_ gpbp X$Ngp `lf. d Ad_u `pk\u Sy>Npf^pfp_ gNsp L$pev$p_p `ysL$p gu^p A_ hpep.

hL$ugpsdp as L$pev$p_y op_ lpe A ApheL$ _\u. A rkhpe `Z bu i[sAp šCA. šL$ A hMs epes_ c$pQpf_p g|Zp _lpsp gpep. ApS> sp epesdp v$fL$ sb$ cph bpgpe R>.

smV$u\u riMf ky^u_y QY$pZ

_uQgu L$pV$dp lz L$k lpfu Nep AV$g dpfp rkr_ef hL$ug kik L$pV$dp A`ug L$fhp L$y. A hMs A`ug L$fhp_u au `Z 10 $r`ep lsu. A`ug_u ky_phZu lsu A_p ApNg qv$hk d M|b dl_s L$fu. dpfpdp bu L$pC AphX$s lpe L$ _l], lz dl_s M|b L$fu iL$sp.

A`ugdp dpfu kpd dpfp\u 30 hj rkr_ef kfL$pfu hL$ug grgs dpl_ Np^u lsp. lz L$k_u S> fS|>Aps L$fhp_p lsp s sdpd dypAp epep^ui_ L$lu v$u^p. dpfu A`ug L$pV$ v$pMg L$fu A_ Apfp`u_ r_v$pj lf L$ep. hL$ug Np^uA d_ `|R>ey L$, "eNd_ L$V$gp hjp\u [V$k L$fp R>p?' d L$y L$, "AX$^p drl_p\u.' epf AdZ L$y L$, "š Z hj ky^u Al] QuV$L$u fp sp sdpfy crhe M|b ES>my R>.'

A hMs as L$k_u epesp šhpsu lsu. epep^ui_ L$pV$_u blpf dmhp_u tlds L$pC L$fu iL$sy _l]. sdpfu Qp `Z _l] `uA Ahp AY$ukp $r`ep_p `Npfv$pf S>š A hMs lsp.

A hMs kyfsdp b^y dmu_ dpX$ 120 S>V$gp hL$ugp [V$k L$fsp lsp. A hMs epep^uip_y V$V$k KQy lphp\u L$V$gpL$ hL$ugp epep^ui \hp dpNsp lsp, `fsy epep^uip_y `Npf^pfZ M|b L$Npm lphp\u OZpe Ahp lsp S>Ap epep^ui b_hp_y `kv$ L$fsp _l]. A hMs dybC fpe lphp\u lpC L$pV$ dybCdp lsu.

dybC lpC L$pV$dp QpNgp dye epep^ui lsp. sAp kik S>S>_ ` gM L$ sdpf ep\u L$pC sS>hu hL$ug_ epesdp Aphhy lpe sp S>Zphp.

kyfs_u kik L$pV$dp A hMs rdepcpC _pd_p S>S> lsp S>Ap `pR>m\u NyS>fps lpC L$pV$_p S>S> b_gp. AdZ Ars sS>hu hL$ugpdp dpfy _pd `Z fpey lsy. epf `R>u NyS>fps fpe Sy>vy$ \ey. A hMs kyfsdp Npthv$ `V$g _pd_p AL$ Mf hL$ug lsp, S>Ap rkrhg kpBX$ qV$k L$fsp lsp. sAp M|b budpf `X$p A_ [V$k R>pX$u v$hp_y rhQpfsp lsp. AdZ Ad_p L$k ghp L$y, `fsy d L$y L$ d_ q$rd_g kpBX$ [V$k L$fhpdp S> fk R>. R>hV$ Ad cpNuv$pfu\u L$pd L$fhp_y _$u L$ey. šL$ cpNuv$pfu Mfu, `fsy L$pC gMpZ L$ v$sphS> _l].

v$fL$ Ly$Vy$bdp AL$ QQp L$fhp_p qfhpS> lpe R>. Adpfp Ly$Vy$bdp `Z Ahp qfhpS> lsp. dpfp bp_ lz hL$ugps L$fy A Nd _l]. v$ffpS> lep, g|V$, Qpfu_u hpsp \su fl A Ad_ `kv$ Aph _l]. sAp d_ L$lsp L$, "spfu byq_p MpV$p D`epN L$fu epe_p L$pddp rh_$` \hy A bfpbf R>? sy sp cNhp__p L$pddp fpX$p _pM R>.' dpfu dpA d_ S>S> \C S>hp L$y. hL$ug sfuL$ A hMs lz drl_ $. 10,000 L$dpsp lsp. S>S> sfuL$ d_ $. 750_p `Npf dmhp_p lsp R>sp `Z d epesdp S>hp_y _$u L$ey.

epf _uQgu Av$pgsp `f Qp` fMpsu

S>S> sfuL$ dpfy `lgy `p[V$N Adv$phpv$dp lsy. dpfp `_u_ tQsp ApR>u AphL$dp\u Of Qgphhp_u lsu. d Ad_ L$y L$ Qpgi. epf `R>u lz Sy>r_ef lphp R>sp d_ hX$pv$fp L$pV$dp d|L$hpdp Apep. A hMs hX$pv$fp L$pV$_u R>p` Ahu L$ L$pC hX$pv$fp S>hp sepf \pe _l]. hX$pvfp L$pV$_ "A_$gu lpk' L$lhpdp Aphsu. ep M|b TOX$p A_ spap_p \sp. b hjdp L$pV$_p v$fš KQp Apep. A hMs bmhsfpe dlsp NyS>fps_p dye ^p_ lsp. bmhsfpe cph_Nf_p lsp A_ Ad_u aqfepv$ lsu L$ cph_Nf_ kphL$p v$uL$fp sfuL$ V$uV$ L$fhpdp Aph R> A_ kpfp epep^uip d|L$hpdp Aphsp _\u. hX$pv$fp\u d_ cph_Nf d|L$hpdp Apep. A hMs rkr_epqfV$u_u fus _l], `fsy rscp_ Ap^pf lpC L$pV$_p S>S>_u `kv$Nu \su. 1966dp dpfu r_dZ|L$ NyS>fps lpC L$pV$_p S>S> sfuL$ \C lsu.

A hMs Qua S>[V$k rdepcpC, v$uhp_, ku.X$u. dlsp, A.X$u. v$kpC, X$u.`u. v$kpC S>hp ^yf^f epep^uip lsp. L$pC lL$u-`L$u _l]. v$gugp kpcmhp_u, dyv$sp Ap`hp_u _l] A_ epe spmhp_p. A hMs DQ Av$pgsp_p epep^uip _ c$ L$fhp_u tlds L$pC L$fu iL$sy _l]. _uQgu Av$pgspdp \pX$ Ai NfbX$ i$ \C NC lsu, `fsy ep `Z as hpsp S> kpcmhp dmsu lsu A_ _uQgu Av$pgsp `f QL$ lsp. ky`frhT_ lsy. b S>š _uQgu Av$pgs_p v$fL$ QyL$pv$p s`pk. A_ AdZ Qua S>[V$k_ qf`pV$ L$fhp_p.

B[v$fp Np^u bu hpf kp `f Apep `R>u b^y bv$gpey...

fpS>L$pfZuAp sfa\u epesdp QQ|`ps \hp_u i$Aps B[v$fp Np^u kp `f Apep `R>u i$ \C. Mpk L$fu_ sAp bu hMs kp\p_ Apep `R>u fpS>L$pfZuAp_u v$Mgbp h^u lsu. A hMs lz kyud L$pV$dp dye epep^ui lsp. k\p_u r$A kyud L$pV$ AV$gu dlp_ R> L$ A_p `f v$bpZ gphhp_u tlds L$pC L$f _l], `fsy ANs fus L$V$gpL$ epep^uip rhi A dpZ L$lu iL$pe _l]. L$V$gpL$_ qfV$peX$ \ep `R>u Qfd_ \hy lpe, rhv$idp AgQu sfuL$ S>hy lpe... sAp L$V$gpL$ fpS>L$pfZuAp_ Myi L$fhp_p e_ L$f, `fsy dpfp S>hp dp\p_p afgp `f v$bpZ gphhp_u tlds L$pC L$f _l]. sd_ AL$ v$pMgp Ap`y. dlpfp$_p c|s`|h dye ^p_ Asyg kpd L$k lsp. lpC L$pV$ Ad_ r_v$pj lf L$ep. kyud L$pV$dp A`ug \C. L$kdp b^pfZ_ gNsp dypAp QQhp_p lphp\u `pQ S>š_u bQ _udhpdp Aphu lsu. dpfu kp\ `pW$L$, rQ_`p f$u S>hp S>š lsp. Asyg_u BR>p lsu L$ bQdp afapf L$fhpdp Aph. udsu Np^u_ AdZ A dpZ_y L$y `Z lsy. udsu Np^u, Asyg_ kpQhhp dpNsp lphp R>sp AdZ L$lhy `X$y L$, "bQdp afapf bpbs sAp L$C L$fu iL$ Ad _\u.'

le NyS>fps lpC L$pV$ sp Dd S> R>

A hMs NyS>fps_p epesdp `Z `qf[\rs kpfu lsu. Qud_cpC `V$g A_ dp^htkl kpgL$u Apep `R>u S> `qfr\rs bNX$u. 1968dp lz NyS>fps lpC L$pV$_p epep^ui lsp epf NyS>fps_u 18 L$`_uAp b^ \C S>hp_u sepfudp lsu A_ 50,000 L$pdv$pfp bL$pf \C S>hp_p lsp. A hMs rls v$kpC dye ^p_ lsp. L$k epf Qpgsp epf Ad_p Ar^L$pfu `pV$ZL$f_ sAp v$fL$ rleqfN hMs dpL$gsp, L$pdv$pfp_ Q|L$hhp_p \sp `kp kfmsp\u dmu fl A_u kNhX$ L$fsp A_ epes_ kL$pfpdL$ fus klepN Ap`sp.

rls v$kpC `ps AL$ S>dp_pdp hL$ug lphp\u epes_ kd iep lsp. A hMs dye ^p_ A_ lpC L$pV$_p dye epep^ui cpe S> AL$bu_ dmsp. lh Ahy fy _\u. d_ epv$ R>- AL$ lpC L$pV$_p AL$ S>S>_u r_dZ|L$ hMs bpL$u_p S>šA dye eped|rs_ L$lgy L$, A cpC_ gip _l], `fsy L$pC fpS>L$ue v$bpZ_ L$pfZ Qua S>[V$k Ad_u r_dZ|L$ L$fhu `X$u A_ c$pQpf i$ \C Nep. `gp S>S> kpd Mygu L$pV$dp c$pQpf kprbs \ep lsp. šL$ AL$ hMs NyS>fps lpC L$pV$_u Nqfdp Ahu lsu L$ kyud L$pV$_p Qua S>[V$k rlv$pesygpA L$lhy `X$gy L$, "NyS>fps lpC L$pV$ AL$ Dd lpC L$pV$ R>.' šL$ l `Z e[sNs fus L$pCL$ _bmu e[sAp Aphu li, `fsy k\p sfuL$ sp NyS>fps lpC L$pV$ Dd S> R>.

dpfp d : L$k Qgphp, dyv$s _l]

A hMs dyeh b L$pf_p L$kp S> L$pV$ kdn Aphsp- rkrhg A_ q$rd_g. S>d S>d kpdprS>L$$ epe_p rkps X$hg` \ep Ad Ad _hp _hp L$pev$pAp bep. S>d S>d rhrh^ V$k _Mphp i$ \ep Ad V$k_p _hp L$pev$pAp Adgdp Apep AV$g A_ gNsp v$phpAp i$ \ep. gpL$pdp S>d Nrs h^u Ad lf qls_p v$phpAp_y dpZ hey. A S> fus ApS> Mpk n_p hL$ugp bu n_p v$phpAp huL$pfsp _\u. Adpfp hMs sp rkrhg-q$rd_g S> L$k dm A Ad huL$pfsp.

A hMs epe_u q$ep ApV$gu ^udu _lpsu. lz epf S>S> lsp epf dpfu kpd kp\u dpV$u aqfepv$ lsu L$ lz dyv$s _\u Ap`sp. dpfu AL$ S> hps flsu L$ L$k Qgphp, dyv$s _l]. A hMs epep^uip h^y dl_sy A_ Aepky lsp. lpC L$pV$_y ky`frhT_ _uQgu L$pV$p `f flsy AV$g _uQgu Av$pgspA `Z L$pdNufu L$fhu `X$su. ApS> ky`frhT_ L$d \sy _\u A_u Mbf _\u.

lz hL$ugps L$fsp lsp epf `Z M|b QuhV$pC\u dl_s L$fsp. AL$ hMs L$pV$dp hL$i_ `X$hp_u sepfudp lsy. d S>S>_ rh_su L$fu L$ dpfp L$k Qgphu gp AV$g hL$i_dp lz 4-5 qv$hk blpfNpd S>C iLy$. S>S> d_ rh_su L$fu L$ AL$ M|_L$k_p Nfub Apfp`u_p L$k `Z dpf lp\ `f ghp. `psp_u `_u_u lep_p Apfp` A e[s `f lsp. lep_u kpnu A_u v$uL$fu S> lsu. d L$k_p Aepk L$fhp_y Qpgy L$ey. gplpfdp Ap S> L$pf_p L$k bep lsp. ApB.A.Ak. Ar^L$pfu bu.bu. tkl `f Ad_u `_u_u lep_p Apfp` lsp A_ b_ph_u kpnu AL$dp v$uL$fu lsu. d fpӡ v$pY$ hpep ky^u L$k_p Aepk L$ep. `R>u lz Of Nep epf d_ rhQpf Apep L$ d W$uL$ _\u L$ey. lz š `kp gC_ Ap L$k gX$sp lps sp h^y dl_s _l] L$fu lps? lz Of S>C_ `pR>p L$k_p Aepk L$fhp bW$p. R>hV$ šL$ dpf S>S>_ L$lhy `X$y L$, Ap L$kdp L$C \C iL$ _l]. hL$ugps_p ehkpedp kam \hp dpV$ QpV$gu bp^u_ L$pd L$fhy S>$fu R>. sd lpriepf _l] lp, `fsy QuhV$hpmp lp sp Qpgu e. hL$ug dpV$ v$fL$ L$k_u dprlsu `Z M|b ANe_u R>. v$fL$ M|_ L$k_u dprlsu AgN-AgN lpe R>. vy$r_epdp AV$gp b^p L$pev$p R>. AV$gp b^p QyL$pv$pAp R> L$ v$fL$_p KX$pZ`|hL$ Aepk S>$fu R>.

lh sp epesdp Oτb^y ^fd|m\u bv$gpC Ney R>

1977dp lz kyud L$pV$_p S>S> sfuL$ Nep epf gpey L$ Aphu k\p šC _\u. Av$cys. gpBbfudp sd Z L$fp L$ Ap Qp`X$u _\u sp 24 L$gpL$dp vy$r_ep_p L$pC `Z M|Z\u dmhu Ap`. ep_p gpBbqfe_ `Z M|b L$peLy$im. AL$ hMs `i_fp_ gNsp L$k Adpfu bQ kdn Apep. qfV$peX$ \C Negp S|>_p `i_fp_ _hp, ky^pfgp `i__p v$fp gpNy `X$ L$ _l] A bpbs rhhpv$ lsp. kfL$pf_u v$gug lsu L$ `i_f AL$ hMs k\pdp\u r_h \C e AV$g A_p _psp k\p kp\ s|V$u e A_ `pR>m\u lf \egp gpc dmhhp dpV$ A lL$v$pf fl _l]. Al] gpMp `i_fp_p _ lsp.

d Qua gpBbqfe__ Ap rhje `f ApV$rgep, HgX$, ey TugX$_u L$pV$ Ap`gp sdpd QyL$pv$pAp ip^u Ap`hp L$y. sd dp_ip, buS> qv$hk dpfp V$bg `f g` gNpX$gp kL$X$p `ysL$p gpBbqfe_ dpL$gu Apep. dpfu tS>v$Nu_p kudpqQl_$`u QyL$pv$p lz Ap `i_hpmp L$k_p S> NZy Ry>.

qfV$peX$ \egp `i_fp `i_dp \egp h^pfp dmhhp lL$v$pf R> Ahp QyL$pv$p_ L$pfZ 80 gpM `i_fp_ L$pedu apev$p \C iep. Sd_y `i_ drl_ $. 1,360 lsy Ad_y drl_ $. 4,700 S>V$gy \C Ney. `i_f Akprkei_ epf `R>u dpfp QyL$pv$p_p qv$hk_ S> "`i_f X$' sfuL$ ES>h R>. d_ OZp rdp L$lsp L$, "s tS>v$Nudp bu L$pC r_ZpeL$ QyL$pv$pAp _l] Apep lps A_ Ap AL$ S> Apep lps sp `Z sy Adf \C Nep lps.'

Ap`Z ep kpdpe fus Ahy L$lhpe R> L$ "gp L$rdi_'_p Qfd_ Ad_u Apqakdp drl_ AL$pv$ hMs Aph, ApV$p dpfu_ Qpep e. V|$L$dp sAp Mpk L$pC L$pdNufu L$f _l]. 1985dp d_ fph Np^uA gp L$rdi__p Qfd_ b_pep.

lz Apqakdp Nep epf Qfd_ dpV$ AgN V$pBgV$_u eh\p `Z _l]. dpfu A`pBV$dV$ fph Np^uA L$fu lphp\u d Ap bpbs Ad_ ` gMgp epf Ad_ `Z ApOps gpep lsp.

d gp L$rdi__p Qfd_ sfuL$ `Z M|b L$pd L$fgy. `R>u d_ lpV$AV$L$ Apep AV$g d L$pd_y cpfZ OV$pX$gy A_ Qfd__u bu V$d huL$pfu _lpsu.

lh lz r_hr_p qv$hkp kyfsdp `kpf L$fy Ry>, `fsy A S|>_p qv$hkp_ epv$ L$fy Ry> epf gpN R> L$ epesdp Oτb^y ^fd|m\u bv$gpC Ney R>.

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?

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