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hpsp : d^y fpe


 

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ep Nep 501 kpby A_ L$pZ epv$ L$f R> "spS>R>p`' rkNpfV$, S> ^udu bm R> A_ h^y rgS>s Ap` R>!

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`p_uT L$lhs R> L$ "AX$hV$pBtTN BT d^f Apa L$pdk'. ep`pf_u dpsp lfMbf_u L$mp R>. A L$mp pfp S|>_uS|>_u bpX$ cpfsdp A_ S>Nsdp `v$p \C. `Z L$V$guL$ cpfs_u bfp_u bpX$ ^uf^uf gys \C NC R>. šL$ bfdp\u bpX$_dhpmp cpCiL$f_p `X$p L$ 501 kpby L$ "spS>R>p`' MpMu rkNpfV$ Ae \C Nep R>, `Z Adpfu S|>_u `Y$u_u drsdp\u A bpX$ l ky^u c|kpsu _\u. 50 hj_u D`f_p hpQL$p_ S|>_u bpX$_u Quš epv$ li A_ s_u kp\ bQ`Z_p dfZp `Z šX$pep li. dpfp hs__p Npd TpTdfdp flsp epf NpdX$p_u vy$L$p_ bpX$hpmu Quš dmsu _l]. dpfp r`sp bmv$NpXy$ šX$u_ _L$_p smp ilfdp lV$pτ L$fu_ Aph epf lV$g `pdk_p rb[L$V$_p X$bp_u Ad fpl šC_ bkuA. dpfu bpA V$pV$p L$`_u_p 501 kpby_p gpV$p dNpep lpe s gpV$p L$p`hp_y L$pd bp `pk\u ApQL$u_ gpV$p_p bpf ApL$pdp\u bpf kpby b_phu_ hpX$uA L$`X$p ^php S>CA epf Adpfu hpX$u_p L$pkhpmp L$l L$, ""ApS> lh `p_kpAL$\u _p'hp dmi.'' `p_kpAL$ kpby A Nfub dpZk _lphp dpV$ hp`f A_ Ad L$`X$p ^pCA. Ad_ s hMsdp l k_gpBV$ kpby hp`fhp S>V$gu ӡhX$ _lpsu. Npd_p iW$_p R>pL$fp A hMs_u gTfudp NZpsp k_gpBV$ kpby ^php_p kpby lsp R>sp _lphpdp hp`fsp lsp.

dlzhp_u lpCL|$gdp dykgdp__p R>pL$fpAp Adpfp rd A_ abp_ Of iy cpdZ sfuL$ hsp AV$g abp sL$v$pfu fpM L$ dykgdp__p kpL$fp Ad_ "bNpX$u e' _l], `Z Adpfp rhL$dp fpX$_p `pX$pidp flsp QpDk_p v$uL$fp Ab| bL$f d_ d_ _\u lpCL|$g_p Apbp _uQ kpS> "spS>R>p`' rkNpfV$_p b L$i MQhp dS>b|f L$f. kpfp$_p MX|$sp S> buX$u `usp `usp ^__u r$A "NeyAV$' \ep lpe s Ad_p L$qX$ep (D`f_y `lfZ)_p kpL$X$p rMkp_ `lpmp b_phu sdp "spS>R>p`' rkNpfV$ fpMsp. rhg`pghpmp QcyS> _fiuA `v$p L$fgu A spS>R>p` rkNpfV$_u lfMbf_p bpX$ W$fW$f hpQhp dmsp... "^udu bm R> A_ h^y rgS>s Ap` R>.'

A S>dp_pdp bpX$X$ Quš ApR>u lsu, `Z hNf bpX$ bpX$X$ \_pfu OZu Quš lsu. v$pMgp sfuL$ kpfp$dp QyX$p V$i_ Aph epf L$pmp `$phpmp L$`_u Qp `uhp OZp AX$^u fpӡ `Z V$i_ Nu e. QyX$p V$i__u A Qp_ b^p L$pmp `$p S> L$lsp lsp. buX$uAp `f_p kav$ A_ gugp ^pNp D`f\u buX$u_u bpX$ _$u \su. cph_Nf_p Mpfbf_p hmhpmp NpqW$ep A_ OpOp NV$ `pk lk_cpC_u vy$L$p__u L$pY$p S>hu Qp eps lsu. cph_Nf_p sdpd dS|>fhN Mpfv$fhpS> `V$g_u lpV$g_u Qp `u_ S> L$pd QY$sp lsp.

A S>dp_pdp eps bpX$_p dpg S> _l] `Z AdyL$ hp_Nu b_ph_pfp `psp_u QuS> gpL$p_ kss Nd s_u hprgV$u_y ep_ fpMsp. sdZ bpX$ frS>V$f L$fphhu `X$su _l]. cpCiL$f_p `X$p L$ fpS>L$pV$_p cNs_p `X$p L$ cph_Nfu v$pX$d_u L$pC _L$g L$fu iey _\u.

dpfp L$pL$p tldsgpg r`_pN flsp lsp. ep\u š L$C dNphhp_y lpe sp dpf lpV$gdp lp\ Qp b_phhp dpV$ "pBdk' dNphhp_p flsp. pBdk_ Ad pBdk L$lsp. pBdk sp bpX$_d R>, `Z s_y Mfy _pd V$h R> s OZp hMs Mbf `X$u. Ahy S> "\fdpk'_y R>. `Z \fdpk Adpfu `lpQ_u QuS> _lpsu. ^r_L$ Ofp_p bpmL$p_ S> heyd gpL$dp\u Nfd v|$^ L$pY$u_ A`pe s \fdpk sp bpX$_y _pd R>. hX$pv$fp L$pgS>dp cZsp A_ hL$i_ `X$ `R>u r`spA V$d-au_p A_ lpV$g MQ_p `kp dpL$ep lpe sdp\u b $r`ep Mpk bQphu_ hX$pv$fp_p eyrbgu bpN kpd_u QhX$p_u vy$L$p_ S>C b $r`ep_y `X$uLy$ b^phuA. L$pL$pA dpL$ggu "qargk' bpX$_u kpBL$g D`f lz 1949dp qV$`g khpfu bkpX$u_ Qgphsp.

hX$pv$fp epf rhp\}_y ilf NZpsy. lpV$gdp pBdk D`f lz Qp b_phu_ `usp. d_ Qp_u V$h _l]. dpfp _pBfpbu\u Aphgp $d`pV$_f_ fpӡ dpX$ ky^u DNfp L$fu_ hpQhp_u V$h. s_ Qp b_phsp AphX$ _l]. lz Qp b_phy. lz Qp `u_ k|C S>sp. Ad NpdX$pdp lsp epf rgV$_ A_ byL$bpX$_u R> `pChpmu Qp_u `X$uL$uAp ghp S>sp. ApS> rgV$_ A_ byL$bpX$_u bpX$ h R>, `Z vy$L$p_pdp bb `kphpmu (R>`pChpmp) rgV$__u Qp_p lpfX$p v$Mpsp _\u. Aphp OZp lpfX$p Ae \C Nep R>. lzspi_udp `spkp_p fNbfNu S> lpfX$p hQpsp.

_hfpdp qL$V$dk gpBV$ `V$ph s_y bpX$_d `V$pdk lsy. NpdX$pdp gN_Npmp lpe A_ _pfsp Aph epf smp L$ dlzhp S>C_ ep\u ddZ_u vy$L$p_\u `V$pdk cpX$ gphhpdp Aphsu. _pfspdp Mg L$f_pfp_ Myi L$fhp dpV$ `spkp_p lpfX$p hlQpsp. TX$p A_ hprZep_p Mg Qpgsp lpe epf Npd_p Nfprkep fhycp khpif `spkp bpg. AV$g chpep sd_p _pd_u "S>e' bpgph.

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AL$psf sqfep Ap^f
L$piuA Nep_p L$epZ

Ahu S>eS>eL$pf_u OpjZp L$fu_ Mgep-chpep `spkp Mphp v$pX$. `V$pdk_ `V$ph_pfp r_Zps gpBV$_ `V$ph epf Ly$Xy$ hmu_ A gpBV$_p vy$_ šCA.

r`_pN\u dpfp L$pL$p Aph epf lV$g `pdk_p rb[L$V$ šhp dm. Adpfp rMkpdp "cpN' sfuL$ sg _ bpS>fp lpe L$ iL$gp tiNv$pZp lpe A_ L$pL$p_p v$uL$fp rMkpdp rhgpes_p Ap rb[L$V$ gph. qfqX$N ilfdp\u lz hX$L$` q$L$V$ hMs `kpf \sp lsp epf lVg `pdk_y _pd OZp hj kpcmhp dey. lVg `pdk_p Mpgu X$bgp dpV$ `Z rhgpes\u Aphgp kNp_u cpcuAp, cpCAp, _Zv$p A_ S>W$pZuAp gX$. 1844dp gX$__p V$pBkdp lVg `pdk_p rb[L$V$_u lfMbf A`psu _l], `Z gX$_ V$pBk hpQL$_u khp L$fhp dpV$ hpQL$p_ S>Zphhy `X$sy L$ lV$g `pdk_p kyr`qfef rb[L$V$ gX$_dp agpZu S>epA lh dm R>. b[S>ed_p fp guAp`pX$ buš A_ _`prge_ uš `Z lV$g `pdk_p rb[L$V$ Mpsp. 1876dp bpX$ frS>V$f \C s `lgp lV$g `pdk_p _pd\u R>L$ pk A_ L$pqW$ephpX$_p NpdX$pdp s_p rb[L$V$ `lpQu Negp.

_pk cpjp_p iv$ bpX$ D`f\u bpX$ iv$ Apep R>. bpX$ AV$g v$TpX$hy-X$pd Ap`hp. Adpfp Npd_p cfhpX$p AdyL$ Npe-ci, NpX$f (OV$p) L$ bL$fp_u ApmM dpV$ s_ Nfd ^Ngp krmep\u X$pd Ap`sp. X$pd_p Sy>v$pSy>v$p r_ip_ L$fsp. s D`f\u Npd_p Nphpm_ "Ap lfNpthv$ dpsf_u cip', "Ap bL$fp agpZp `V$g_p' Ahu ApmM \su. tk^uAp s_p v$i_u Npep L$ bmv$ gC_ kpfp$dp Aphsp s_ `Z bpX$X$ L$fsp lsp. hqY$epf_p hpR>X$p hMZpsp lsp A_ Nuf_u cip hMZpsu. AdyL$ Npd_p `pZL$pfp (MX|$s `lf s Xy$ L$`Xy$) hMZpsp. bNkfp_p lqfS>_p Dd `pZL$pfp hZsp. rcyh_ cud Thfu_p hs__p Npd v$pW$p_p fNpfp Mu hMZpsp. bNX$ _v$udp dpV$p cpW$p L$fu_ ep `pZL$pfp_ fNsp A_ MX|$s_u u_p `lfhp_p \`pX$p_ gpg QV$L$ fN Ap`sp.

Ly$cpfp A_ dpV$u_p hpkZ b_ph_pfp L$pfuNfp sd_p dpV$uL$pd D`f AN|W$p-ApNmu_u bpX$ dpfsp lsp. ApS> AV$gu b^u rkNpfV$p bfdp v$Mpe R>, `Z Ad _ `usp sp `Z "`ptkN ip' A_ "L$hX$f'_p _pd Ad_ epv$ flu S>sp lsp. L$hX$f rkNpfV$hpmp_u lfMbf L$fhp_u A_pMu fus lsu. AL$ dpV$p W$kuhpmp hpkX$p D`f šL$f S>hp X$k `lf, S>dp L$hX$f_p _hud__p cpk \pe. shp hpkX$p D`f lfps L$f_pfp cfbf Qpg A_ i$dp L$hX$f rkNpfV$ dasdp hlQsp. OZp_ cpe S> dp_hpdp Aphi L$ X$pgX$p "Ou' dybCNfp_ Nm Esfsy _lpsy epf guhf b^k_p kkd_ gpfudp sphX$p d|L$u_ ^pbusmph X$pgX$p Oudp smgu `|fu das MhX$phsp lsp. lz r`_pN Nep epf dgeriepdp L$pC_ L$pL$pL$pgp cphsy _l]. 1956dp epf rk_dplpg `pk dasdp L$pL$pL$pgp r`hX$phhpdp Aphsy. ApS> bpX$_y h`pfuL$fZ \ey R>. 60-70 hj `lgp OfOf_u A_pMu bpX$ lsu. S>X$udpku R>pL$fuey_p L$p_-_pL$ h]^u v$- Mbf `Z _ `X$. lk_p bNX$uhpmp R>pL$fuAp_p L$pX$pdp L$pQ_u bNX$uAp AL$ X$T_ `lfph, `Z awV$ _l]. dlzhpdp Adpfu ifudp flsp duW$p Ly$cpf s_u `|fu-`L$pX$u_u gpfu gC_ kpS> R> hpe _uL$m epf duW$p_u `|fu-`L$pX$u_u fpl šsp. AL$ `pC_u b `|fu_u A rgS>s ApS> `Z epv$ R>. ANš bpX$_d fpMhp_y kp\d dybC A_ dpk_ iuMhu Nep. ANšA `psp_y "`pgk_' bpX$_y Al] b_sy dpMZ sp AV$gy b^y eps L$ey L$ Adpfu dlzhp_u lpCL|$g_p rhrged kf dybC\u `pgk__p dpMZ D`fps `pgk__u L$pau_u V$uL$X$uAp dNphsp lsp. `pgk__y _pd AV$gy b^y eps \ey L$ L$pC_u Myipds L$fhu s_ Adpfu cpjpdp "dpMZ dpfhy' L$lhpsy. `Z `R>u sp "š_, kpgp rhrged kf_ `pgk_ dpf R>' Ad L$lu_ Myipds L$f_pf_ V$pZp dfpsp. S> MyipdsMpf lpe s_ dpV$ "`pgkr_ep' iv$ h`fpsp. kpfp$\u Aphgp AL$ bpZ bpmL$p dpV$ "bpbygu_' _pd_u bpmL$p dpV$ `uhp_u v$hp blpf `pX$u. `R>u dgpX$-NpfNph_p L$pfMp_p\u v$i-`fv$idp hksu dpspAp bpbygu__u v$hp dNphsu. ApS> bpbygu__u bpX$ Mpk v$Mpsu _\u.

dybCdp dpkbu cg dlpfp$dp\u Aphsu, `Z NyS>fps-kpfp$dp Aphsu "`phguR>p`'_u dpkbu A dybC_u S> dpkbu NZpsu. Adv$phpv$hpmpA "NpX$`pV$'_p ApfS>_u kpd A_ L$pL$pL$pgp kpd kprkep L$pY$y, `Z dybC_y NpX$`pV$ dp ApfS>_ _pd v$fL$ rk_dpOfpdp r`hpsy. ApS> r_s_hp kpX$p_p `uZp Aph R>, `Z "X$yL$'_u kpX$p hMZpsu. šL$ s l gys \C _\u. `R>u X$yL$ bpX$_y dNpgp `Z eps \ey lsy. hZgpg _pd_p NyS>fpsuA _p_p bpmL$\u dpX$u_ dpV$fp_ `V$dp vy$M, Q|L$ Aph, ApL$X$u Aph, EgV$u \pe L$ dp\y vy$M sp Thqfe__y "h_ rdQf' blpf `pX$gy. v$fL$ NyS>fpsu AMbpf_u V$pQ h_ rdQf_u v$hp_u lfps lpe A_ Of Of AdspS>__u bpd_u bpV$g kp\ Thqfe__y h_ rdQf lpe S>. h_ rdQf_p h`fpi OV$u Nep R>, `Z l S|>_u `Y$u_p Ofdp h_ rdQf_u bpV$gu v$Mpe R>.

S>dc|rd_p c|s`|h eyT AqX$V$f fdZgpg iW$_ frhhpf_u f lpe sp sd_p `_u krls $paX$ dpL$V$ _L$ "bpv$ipl' L$pX$ qX$L$ lpDkdp apgyv$p A_ ifbs Mphp-`uhp S>sp. bpv$ipl L$pX$ qX$L$ lpDk ($paX$ dpL$V$) NyS>fpsu, `pfku A_ dy[gdp dpV$ rdg_ \p_ A_ `funpdp L$pC `pk \pe sp apgyv$p Mphp_y \m NZpsy lsy. dldv$ Agu fpX$_p AL$ hpfp_p Aagps|_ lghp dp tlvy$sp_ A_ `R>u `pqL$sp_ S> _l] `Z R>L$ L$rgapr_ep ky^u S>sp lsp. dpl_gpg duW$pChpgp bfa_p lghp_u kss lfMbf L$fsp lsp s_u L$pC S>$f _lpsu, L$pfZ L$ L$pgbpv$hu fpX$ `f d|m p`S>k\fp_p `ghpm bpZ cpCiL$f NpfuiL$f_p `X$p A_ bfau hMZpsp lsp s fus lghp sp dp dpl_gpg duW$pChpmp_p NZpsp lsp. cg X$bg OpX$p bpL$u_y fidu L$p`X$ Tcp L$ hffp_p X$k dpV$ Qu_\u Aphsy, `Z X$bg OpX$p bpL$u_u bpX$ AL$ dybCNfpA Qu__p D`pv$L$_ k|Qhgu. X$bg OpX$p bpL$u S>hy fid_y L$p`X$ lh cpe S> šhpdp Aph R>. A L$pf kyMX$_p gpL$X$p cg bNgpf\u Aphsp lsp, `fsy keyAg V$uV$ A_ d[S>v$ bv$fdp v$pfpbiW$ `pfkubphp_p kyMX$_p gpL$X$p hMZpsp. L$pC fpS>L$ue _sp dfu e sp kyMX$_p gpL$X$p A `pfkubphp `pk\u S> dZdpY$ dm.

ANpD_p gMp
V_pgp_p kss rhL$pk, ep` A_ rhspf\u X$fhp S>hy Mfy?
X$u rbek s_u "L$pV$g'_u _urs R>pX$i?
ipfl_p q$L$V$_u Ap`husu
Qu__p Qlfp_ ApmMp
qadp NyS>fpsu `V$gp_u vy$L$p_p g|V$pC
dpfy AdqfL$p_y rdi_ : `L$pfh _l], `Z c$ b_u_ eS>dp__ S>dpX$hp_y
dybCNfp `L$pf AdqfL$pdp iy šey
R> drl_p\u NyS>fps kfL$pf KOsu lsu?
ApBAdAa A_ rhbL$ kpd gX$_pfpAp
lku $pr_e A_ bu q$L$V$fp R>V$L$u S>i...
gpk Apa aBk : dp_hu_u ifdu A_ bifdu
ApL$pf rhS>sp dX$uk : "AdqfL$_ eyV$u'_p Zhp S>hp qv$v$iL$

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?


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