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qa_p spap_p_ L$pfZ NyS>fpsdp tQsp
rd_ dpL$gp

qa_u E\g`p\g_p `X$Op S>V$gp _hu qv$ludp `X$ R> s L$fsp h^y NyS>fps A_ lqfepZpdp `X$u fp R>. fpS>fpS> bv$gpsp kp_p kduL$fZp D`f rhv$i dpge Qp`su _S>f fpM R>, `v$c$ hX$p ^p_ dl Qp^fu_u dy[s rhi lqfepZpdp sd_p hS>_p tQsp kh R>, `Z NyS>fpsdp sp lfp Ly$Vy$bp qahpku hS>_p_p kdpQpf dmhhp T|fu fp R>.

V$rgrhT__p `X$v$p D`f qa_u fpS>^p_u kyhp_u A^p^|^u A_ spX$apX$_p S> ep v$Mpep s_p\u L$V$gpL$_ NyS>fpsdp Mbf `X$u L$ sd_p hS>_p_u vy$L$p_p L$ fV$pfp g|V$pep R> L$ ApN_u hpmpdp g`V$pep R>. `pfbv$f_p kp_u`qfhpfpA V$rgrhT__p `X$v$ `psp_p kb^uAp_u spfp_u Ag`Tg` šC. Ahu S> v$ip fpS>L$pV$ A_ D`gV$p_p `qfhpfp_u \C. L$V$gpL$ ap_ `f k`L$ kp^u iep A_ L$V$gpL$ A^f pk ap_ šX$php_u fpl šC fp R>. kpfp$_p ilfp_u S>d v$rnZ NyS>fps_p _hkpfu L$ Qfpsf_p Npdp_p `pV$uv$pf `qfhpfp `Z `psp_p hS>_p_p kdpQpf dpV$ A^f h sgku fp R>.

Aepf qadp Av$pS> `v$fL$ lf S>V$gp NyS>fpsuAp R> A_ sdp\u dpV$p cpN_p h`pfhZS> kp\ s\p Ap^yr_L$ ehkpe kp\ kL$mpegp R>. S> NyS>fpsu Ly$Vy$bp Qpf-`pQ `Y$u `|h ep `lpep lsp sdp\u S>Ap kd \ep sAp_p ksp_pA sp R>gp b v$peL$p\u ApV$rgep-ey TugX$_u sd S> ey.L$.-ey.Ak._u qv$ip `L$X$u. rhij L$fu_ Qfpsf_p `pV$uv$pf Ly$Vy$bpdp\u kepb^ gpL$p kyeprS>s fus kd v$ipdp `lpQu Nep. k_ 1987dp L$_g fpbyL$pA gL$fu rhpl_y _sh gC_ Q|V$pegu kfL$pf `pk\u kp ApQL$u gu^u s OV$_pA gpgbu_u NfS> kpfu. Ap^yr_L$ ehkpe kp\ šX$pegp NyS>fpsuAp_u qa R>pX$hp_u Nrs sS> b_u. lh spS>sf_u A[\fsp `R>u kcph_p Ahu R> L$ blz dpV$u kepdp NyS>fpsuAp qa R>pX$hp dpX$i.

qa_u fpS>L$ue vy$v$ip_p `pepdp ep_u kpdprS>L$-Apr\L$ rhjdsp A_ rhkNrs flgu R>. d|m qa_p NZpe shp dg_rie_ d|m_p gpL$p_u hkrs, Ly$g kpX$p ApW$ gpM_u hkrsdp AL$ph_ V$L$p, epf d|m cpfsue hi_p gpL$p Ly$g_p 44 V$L$p, bpL$u_p `pQ V$L$pdp Aph Qu_u sd S> eyfpr`e_ hi_p gpL$p. Apr\L$ kp_p k|p A_ kkp^_p gNcN cpfsue hi_p gpL$p `pk AV$g dl_s-dS|>fu `f hsu dg_rie_ _ kss Ahy gpN L$ sd_y ipjZ \C fy R>. S>hu `qf[\rs A_ dp_rkL$sp `|h ApqL$p_p v$ipdp hssu lsu shu S> ApS> qadp hs R>. `qfZpd _\u kpdprS>L$-Apr\L$ kduL$fZ NpW$hpsy L$ _\u s_ `Ng fpS>L$ue kduL$fZ L$ [\fsp L$ ksyg_ NpW$hpsy.

\pX$pL$ hj `|h gL$fu kp_p hpfpafp `R>u _hy b^pfZ fQpey, Q|V$ZuAp epC A_ cpfsue hi_p dl Qp^fu hX$p ^p_ bep. Ap epN š \pX$pL$ hj Qpep lps sp rc_ rc_ hi_p gpL$p hQ kp_p klcpN s\p klh__p kduL$fZp rhL$ku iL$s. `fsy L$dcpe epS> `B pfp ApsL$hpv$u fus kp`gV$p_y blzAL$u _pV$L$ i$ \ey s\p qa_u Ahv$ip gpbu vy$v$ipdp `gV$pC NC.

ApS> qadp A_ c|sL$pmdp eyNpX$p S>hp `|h ApqL$p_p v$ipdp S> `qf[\rs_y r_dpZ \ey s_p d|m rbqV$i D`r_hihpv$ L$ k\p_hpv$_u _ursfursdp R>. NC kv$udp k_ 1874dp ANšA `Q\u qa_p dygL$ `psp_p rhipm kpdpedp cmhu v$u^p. ANS> lpL$dp_p lsy sp qadp ifX$u_p rh`yg `pL$ gC MpX$_p D`pv$_ pfp Apr\L$ gpc dmhhp_p lsp. ifX$u_p `pL$ dpV$ MsdS|>fp_p L$pagp šCA, S> ANšA cpfsdp\u rNfduqV$epAp_u Apeps L$fu_ Ecp L$ep.

S> rNfduqV$epAp cpfsdp\u qa kv$u_u i$Apsdp `lpep s dpV$ cpN Df cpfs_p tlv$u cpju v$ip_p lsp. Ap rNfduqV$epAp_ L$pmu dS|>fu L$fhu `X$su A_ ANS> kp^uip sd_y DOpXy$ ipjZ L$fsp. v$rnZ ApqL$p_p A_ych_ Ap^pf Np^u_y ep_ qa_p tlv$u rNfduqV$epAp sfa _ `lpQ sp S> Ape NZpe. Np^uA Ap rNfduqV$epAp_ klpe L$fhp sd S> epe A`phhp NyS>fpsu bqfV$f drZgpg X$pV$f_ qa S>hp_y k|Qey A_ sApA qa_p dpN gu^p. kv$u_p bu v$peL$p_p Apfc\u S> drZgpg X$pV$f dS|>fp_ ipjZ\u dys L$fphhp cpfsdp kq$e lsp. MfMf sp cpfs_p L$pdv$pf Apv$pg__p `pep QZhp_y ArslprkL$ L$pe drZgpg X$pV$f bey lsy, `fsy Brslpkdp sd_u S>V$gu _p^ ghphu šCA sV$gu ApTpv$u `|h L$ `R>u ghpC _\u.

drZgpg X$pV$f_p A\pN epkp_ gu^ qa_p tlv$u rNfduqV$epAp kNqW$s \ep A_ sd_p AhpS> gX$_ ky^u `lpQhp dpX$p. k_ 1920dp `Qpk lf S>V$gp Ap ifX$u L$pdv$pfpA lX$spm_p dpN gu^p A_ ANS> lpL$dp QpL$u EW$p. kdN qadp lX$spm_ spX$u _pMhp v$d__p L$pfX$p h]Tpep, Npmubpfp_u `f`fp Qpgu A_ R>g AN kp^uipA dpig gp lf L$ep s\p drZgpg X$pV$f_ qadp\u sX$u`pf L$fhp_y afdp_ \ey.

AN lpL$dp_p Sy>gd_p kdpQpfpA tlv$dp DѡS>_p agphu v$u^u. dybCdp Akgrkef r\eV$fdp rhipm kcp epC, S>_ Np^uA kbp^u. kcpdp v$u_b^y AX$T A_ Np^uA ANš_p ApsL$_u kMs TpV$L$Zu L$pY$u sd S> ku^p Apn` d|ep L$ ANS> lpL$dp ipjZ_y Q$ Qpgsy fpMu_ cpfsue dS|>fp_ A^Nygpd_u v$ipdp fpMhp dpN R>. S> fus Npmubpfp \ep, dpig gp lf \ep s\p drZgpg X$pV$f_ v$i`pf L$fhpdp Apep s L$pev$p_u rhfy R>, epe_u rhfy R> sd S>Zphu Np^uA sV$\ keip^L$ krdrs fQhp_y Agp_ L$ey. rhijdp sApA k|Qey L$ S> cpfsue gpL$p qadp\u `pR>p afhp dpNsp lpe sd_ dpV$ `|fu eh\p ANS> kfL$pf L$fhu šCA.

ApS> Ap OV$_p_p Aku hj `R>u kp_p r`fprdX$ `gV$pC Nep R>. epf ANš riMf `f lsp, Aepf tlv$u cpfsue hi_p gpL$p Apr\L$ kp_p riMf R>. epf ANš_p Sy>gddp\u dys \C_ S> tlv$uAp `pR>p hs_ Aphhp dpNsp lpe sd_ kyrh^p Ap`hp_y k|Q_ lsy, Aepf fpS>L$ue A^p^|^u A_ AfpS>L$spdp\u dys \C_ S> hs_ `pR>p afhp dpNsp lpe sd_ kfmsp L$fu Ap`hp_y NyS>fps_p dye ^p_ k|Qhu fp R>. Agb, NyS>fpsuAp qa R>pX$u_ cpfs `pR>p af s L$fsp h^y ApV$rgep, ey TugX$ L$ `rd_p kd v$ipdp S>hp_y `kv$ L$fi shu kcph_p S>Zpe R>.

`|h ApqL$p L$ v$rnZ ApqL$p_u kfMpdZudp qadp hksp NyS>fpsuAp_u kep OZu _p_u R>, `fsy ArslprkL$ r$A sp qadp eyNpX$p_y `y_fphs_ S> \C fy R> Ahy NZpe. ep ep Apr\L$ ksyg_ kQhpey _l], ep ep NyS>fpsuAp_ d|m flhpkuAp_p Ap$pi_p cpN b_hy `X$y. uds v$ipdp `Z epf bfpS>Npfu_y dpZ h^ R> epf NyS>fpsuAp, tlv$uAp L$ AriepC D`f tlkL$ lzdgpAp \pe R>, sd S> fNcv$ L$ rscv$_y s_y hfhy $` NV$ L$f R>. AdqfL$p L$ HgX$ `Z Aphu rsNs tlkp\u dys _\u. Ap kšNpdp h`pfhZS> A_ Ap^yr_L$ ehkpe kp\ kL$mpegp hrL$ NyS>fpsuAp dpV$ Apr\L$-kpdprS>L$ sd S> fpS>L$ue `qfbmp_u ep`L$ sd S> KX$u `lQp_ A_ kdS> `pNf s ApS>_p sL$pš R>. kp\pkp\ NyS>fpsuAp dpV$ `Z hrL$ A_ \pr_L$ `qfbmp_p kLy$g ApV$p`pV$p kdS>hp_y h^y _ h^y Ar_hpe b_u fy R>.

ANpD_p gMp
Qv$_ cfu smphX$u, dpsuX$ bp^u `pe
rhL$pkL$pedp S>_u S>du_ e s_ KQy hmsf dmhy S>$fu
h__y buSy> _pd AV$g ^ud `Ng _L$ Aphsy dps
DdfNpd- kpNfL$pW$ ApN
`pZu_p en_ A_ A^|fp Dfp
NyS>fps_p gpL$hpp cygpC fp R>
105 NyS>fpsu dpR>udpfp `pqL$sp__u S>gdp

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?


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