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15 Sy>gpC, 2000
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cpfsue S>_sp `n_p fpS>dp ApS>L$pg Ap[sL$ _pd gpL$p L$d `pX$sp _\u? Ap[sL$ _pd AV$g pmy sp Mfy S>, `Z Ap[sL$ AL$ F>rj`y \C Negp. dlpcpfs_p Apqv$`hdp S>Zpey R> L$ S>fL$pfy _pd_p AL$ F>rj OZp hj gNu `fep _lpsp. AL$ hMs afsp afsp AL$ Nyapdp S>C QY$p. ep sd_p r`sAp_p ifuf gV$L$sp šep. S>fL$pfyA `|R>ey L$, "iy hps R>?' r`sApA L$y, "sy `fZsp _\u. sy `fZui sp Adpfp Dpf \i.' S>fL$pfy dyr_A L$y, "š dpfp _pd_u S> L$ep dmi sp lz `fZui.'

S>fs _pd_p gpL$ R> sdp S>Ns ApMy kdpey R>. S>fL$pfy AV$g Ap gpL$_p L$sp. cpe S> sd S>fL$pfy _pd kpcey li. S>fL$pfy `R>u Ad_p _pd_u L$ep_u Ncuf ip^ L$fhp gpep.

hpkyqL$ _pd_p F>rj_u bl__y _pd S>fL$pfy lsy. hpkyqL$dyq__u khp L$fu_ re \C S>fL$pfy F>rj_u bl__ `fZu Nep. `Z L$pC L$pfZkf S>fL$pfyA hpkyqL$_ Nyk L$fu _pep. AV$g hpkyqL$ S> Apd R>pX$u_ S>sp fp. S>sp S>sp Aprij Ap`sp Nep L$ s_ `y \i. s eo L$fi s_p\u spfp r`sAp_p Dpf \i. S>fL$pfy_ `R>u "Ap[sL$' _pd_p `y \ep. sZ Ly$Vy$b_p Dpf L$ep. S>fL$pfy_p buš A\ kMs "`yfyjp\u' L$ kMs s` pfp ifuf_ "nuZ L$f_pfp' Ahp `Z \pe R>.

fysd dkpZu S>dZ "apL$ L$Qf qfgVX$ B_ _Bk' _pd_y `ysL$ 34 hj `lgp gMgy. sdp gey R> L$ S>fL$pfy_p A\ `yfps_ ri`u `Z \pe R>. s_p `y Ap[sL$ k`gpL$_ bQphgy. fysd dkpZu L$l R> L$, "_pddp AL$ R|>`u i[s R> AV$g cpfs_p L$V$gpL$ awgpdp kpQy _pd Ry>`phpe R>. L$V$gpL$ dp Nyfy L$p_dp awL$ R> sd _pd AL$ d R>. (v$p.s. fpd_pd `\f sf.) fysd dkpZu L$l R> L$ F>rjAp, NyZ A_ L$d dpZ_p _pd ^fphsp lsp. dp_hu_y e[sh s_p _pddp NV$ \pe R>. _pd A S> dp_hu_p Apdp R>.

š fysdkplb Aphy L$l R> sp afu cpf`|hL$ L$lhy `X$ R> L$ ApS>_p cpfsue bpmL$_y _pd `pX$hpdp Ncuf b_hy šCA. 1950dp hX$pv$fp_u L$pdk L$pgS> (dlpfp kepfph eyr_hrkV$u)dp Adpfu kp\ dp 70 fsg hS>__p, v|$bmp-`psmp A_ bpV$gu_p L$pQ S>hp X$p Qdp `lf_pfp hX$pv$fp_p S> AL$ rhp\} lsp. s_y _pd lsy S>hplfgpg v$pgsv$p. Ad_ s_p _pd A_ AV$L$_p ši_u Cep Aphsu. s_p r`spA L$y L$ v$pgsv$p S>ep epf AV$gp v|$bmp lsp L$ `\pfudp v$Mpsp `Z _l] AV$g d s_y hS>_v$pf _pd `pX$y. A_ MfMf v$Mph kyv$pdp S>hp S>hplfgpg v$pgsv$p d\dqVk, A\ip b[L$$N_p r_Zps lsp. Ad.L$pd. \ep `R>u dybCdp s dfsp ky^udp bL$ Apa bfpX$p_p X$eyV$u S>_fg d_S>f_p `v$ ky^u `lpQgp. sd_p _pd sd_ S>bf `k_pqgV$u Ap`u. dybC_p eprsju _f v$kpC eydfpgp (AL$ip)_p r_Zps lsp. dgeriep, tkNp`pf A_ bu v$ipdp\u sd_ rgrdV$X$ L$`_uAp_p _pd AL$ip A_ Ly$X$mu dpZ k|Qhhp_u 1500\u 2000_u au 15 hj `lgp dmsu.

`qfk_u `feyd L$`_uAp `psp_p `feyd_p _pd `kv$ L$fhp gpMp $r`ep MQ R>. "`pBT_' A_ "Apr`ed' S>hp _pdp eprsju_ `|R>u_ fpM R>. [hTfgX$_p gyTp_ ilf_p epep^ui "Apr`ed' _pd_p `feyd kpd hp^p gC_ Qpf hj ky^u A `feyd [hTfgX$dp hQphp v$u^y _l]. ey S>k}_u, V$pX$X$ ApBg L$`_uA s_y _pd bv$ghy lsy. "V$pX$X$' _pd M|b dpmy (qay$) gpNsy lsy. s\u L$`_u_y _pd EXXON (ATp_) fpey. Ap _pd ip^hp L$`_uA 10 L$fpX$ X$pgf MQgp s hps AdqfL$p_y rsr$s "lp`f' dNqT_ s_p eyApfu 1976_p AL$dp gM R> AV$g dp_hu `X$. `p__u AL$ dpV$fL$pf b_phsu dilwf L$`_uA s_p _hp dpX$g_y _pd AdqfL$_p A_ eyfpr`e_p_ Nd shy `pX$hy lsy. _hy dpX$g sepf L$fhpdp kde gpep s_p\u h^y kde _pd ip^hpdp gpep. ApMf `p_u L$pf L$`_u_p S>d_ rdp_p k`L$ L$fpep. S>d_ gpL$p AL$ipdp dp_ R>. dpV$fL$pf_u Ly$X$mu b_phu_ _hp dpX$g_y X$pV$ky_ (DATSUN) _pd Apey. Apd `p_u L$pf_u "abp' S>d_ R>!

kydrsbl_ dpfpf sd_p _hp S>lpS>_p _pd `pX$hpdp kphQsu fpMsp. AdqfL$p_u AL$ riq`N L$`_u MpV$dp S>su lsu. s_y _pd bv$gu_ "`qkX$V$ gpB_' fMpey. `R>u v$fL$ V$udf_p _pd AdqfL$p_p c|s`|h dyMp_p _pd `f\u `pX$hpdp Apep. lz 1957dp dgeriepdp lsp epf Ad qkX$V$gpB__u V$udf S> dpg cfhp `kv$ L$fsp, L$pfZ L$ bm|L$p _pdhpmu V$udfp Aph_h_dp M|b r_eqds A_ QpMu lsu. qkX$V$gpB_ _pd fpep `R>u riq`N L$`_u_u rs$p h^u.

gX$__u bpX$ V$uV$dp _phpdpL$ BV$f_i_g _pd_u L$`_u R>. s_p cpNuv$pfpdp AL$ kkv$ke_u k$V$fu R>. bu AL$ `ysL$rh$sp_p kkd_ R>. u L$pV|q_V$ R> A_ lg_ _pd_u su Ap L$`_u_u d_tS>N qX$fV$f lsu. Ap L$`_u iy L$f R>? i`|, kpby, dpV$fL$pf A_ bu Quš_p QpV$X|$L$ _pd `kv$ L$fhp_p S> ^^p L$f R>. rbV$__u AL$ dpV$f L$`_uA _hy dpX$g b_pey, `Z kpfy _pd S> S>X$ _l]. ApMf 1979dp A dpX$g_y _pd _phpdpL$_u lg_ ip^u Apey, "d$p'. `p_ AL$ `pV$k L$pf b_phu s_y bm|Ly$ _pd šCsy lsy. b qv$hkdp "Ap[V$_ fbp' _pd k|Qey.

Adpfp rb[X$N_y _pd "rnqsS>' Apd sp bly kpfy gpN R>, `Z s _pd V$qgap_ D`f cpe S> L$pC `L$X$u iL$ R>. cpfs_p rbX$fpA rbqV$i rb[XN_u dpaL$ rb[X$N_p kfm _pdp ip^hp šCA. fpe byk _pd_p AS>V$ L$l R> L$, "ApX$ d_pf lpDk' AV$gy b^y QpV$X|$L$ _pd lsy L$ A _pd_ L$pfZ A rb[X$N_p 5,000 `pDX$ h^y E`ep. dybCdp AL$ qadV$pf rb[X$N_y _pd "lpBV$ lpDk' fpey R>. ApMu vy$r_ep_ epv$ flu e Ahy kfm _pd rbX$fpA `pX$hy šCA. iplfyM Mp_ s_p Apguip_ dlg S>hp bNgp_y _pd d_s fpey R>.

cpfs_p _kud hv$ bpV$_dp Abuk _Bd bL$ BV$f_i_g _pd_u L$`_u \p`gu. Ap L$`_u KQu au gC_ L$`_uAp_p QpV$X|$L$ _pd ip^u Ap` R>. `p__u r_kp_ L$pf L$`_uA s_p _hp dpX$g dpV$ _pd k|Qhhp_u `^p 1966dp fpMgu sp 85 gpM `p Apep. sdp\u ApMf "k_u' (SUNNY) _pd fMpey. q$kgf _pd_u L$pf_p dprgL$ q$kgf L$p`pfi__p AL$ S>dp_p_p Qfd_ gu ApepL$pL$p L$l R>, "cgy \ey d_ L$`_u_y QpV$X|$L$ _pd `lg\u dmu Ney, `Z lh _hp dpX$g_p _pd `pX$hp s gpMZp ^^p R>.

`p__u AL$ _hu L$pf dpV$ _pd ip^hp L$`_u_p d_S>fpA S>d_, BV$pqge_ hNf sdpd cpjp_u qX$i_fuAp av$u _pMu. 200 _pdp ipV$rgV$ L$ep. BV$pgudp Ap L$pf kpfu Qpghp_u lsu. L$pf_y _pd guAp_ `pX$y. BV$pqge_ cpjpdp tkl-gpe__ guAp_ L$l R>. V$pepV$p_u L$pf AdqfL$pdp M|b gpL$re R>. Mpk sp s_y "L$pfpgp' dpX$g kpfy Qpg R>. L$`_u_p Qfd_ AB> V$pepV$pA AN iv$L$pj šhp dpX$p. AL$ a|g_u D`f_u fNu_ NpmpL$pf _L$iu_ L$pfpgp L$l R>. V$pepV$p_ Ap _pd M|b `kv$ `X$y. A dpZ r_ip_ L$`_u_p Qfd_ bQ`Zdp AL$ AN _pV$L$ qgV$g gpX$ apVgfpe hpQgy. sdp kqX$L$ _pd_y `p lsy. A _pd `f\u s_p dpX$g_y _pd A S> fpey. ApS> sd Apsffp$ue `V$V$ frS>V$udp Sy>Ap sp V$pepV$pA 4,000, lpX$pA 3,000 A_ kybpfy L$pf L$`_uA 100 _pdp `V$V$ L$fphu gu^p R> A_ crhe_p dpX$gp dpV$ Ap _pdp A_pds fpep R>.

AdqfL$pdp sp L$Teydf pX$V$_u L$pC _hu bpX$ bfdp d|L$sp `lgp `[grkV$u_p 2 L$fpX$ X$pgf_p ApR>pdp ApR>p MQ Aph R>. AV$g 5,000 X$pgf\u dpX$u_ 5 gpM X$pgf kpfy _pd `kv$ L$fhpdp MQ R>. riL$pNpdp rhgpX$ X$peg _pd_u L$`_u _Bd-L$kV$V$ R>. eyr_guhf_u AL$ `feyd L$`_uA ArgTpb\ V$gf `yfL$s "`i_' bpX$ `feyd bfdp d|ey epf ey epL$_p AL$ V$pf dprgL$ hp^p DW$pep L$ "`i_' s_y frS>V$f _pd R>, Aq_L$ Np$g L$`_u "`i_' bpX$ `feyd b_ph R>. s L$k_p kV$gdV$dp eyq_guhf_ L$fpX$p $r`ep_p MQ \egp. ApS> BV$f_V$_u hbkpBV$_p _pdp hV$phu Mphp_p dpV$p ^^p Qpg R>. kp_p[kL$pdp Bfu bL$pQ _pd_u drlgpA _Bdgb BL$p`pfV$X$ _pd_u L$`_u \peu R>. s L$eyV$f_u dv$v$\u hbkpBV$_p A_ L$`_u_u bpX$_p _pdp ip^u Ap` R>. dkk X$gp_p AX$ NpX$d_ _pd_u _pd k|Qhsu L$`_u_p qX$fV$f X$gp_p ey epL$_p d_l$_ rhspfdp fpS> khpf 3 qL$gpduV$f Qpg R>. dp khpf L$`_u_u Quš_p bpX$ _d ip^hp s hpqL$N L$f R>.

ApB.bu.Ad. _pd_u dil|f L$eyV$f_u L$`_u s_u d_S>dV$ V$uddp _pd ip^hp_p `pQ r_Zpsp fpM R>. ApB.bu.Ad._u _hu gpB_ L$ pX$V_y _pd Ap `pQ r_Zpsp ip^ R>. "gu_k' A_ "Tfpk'_p _pd_p vy$ `R>u 40 hj\u AdqfL$_ gpL$p L$`_u_p _pd `pX$hpdp bpmL$p_p _pd `pX$hp L$fsp h^y Ncufsp fpM R>, h^y kde A_ h^y _pZp MQ R>. gX$_dp OZp NyS>fpsuAp p`V$}hpmp bep `R>u ep dybC_u S>d "_pZphV$u bNgp', "aTgcpC bNgp' Ahp _pd `pX$sp. bNgp _pd AN _\u. QpMy NyS>fpsu _pd R>. hpX$u hQ_p kyv$f dL$p__ bNgp L$l R>. bNgp _pd_y hn `Z R>. eprsjuAp `pk qad_y _pd `pX$hp dpV$ ApS> h^ydp h^y `kp MQpe R>. AL$ S>dp_pdp eprsju _f v$kpC r_dpsp_p _pd A_ Ly$X$mu šC_ qad_y _pd `pX$u Ap`sp.

_hu _hu BV$f_V$ A_ kpVhf L$`_uAp M|gsp _phpdpL$ L$`_uA vy$r_epdp `pQ-R> Apqak Mpgu R>. `feyd\u dpX$u_ kpby_p bpX$ _d ip^hpdp s_ hj 1985dp 30 gpM `pDX$_u L$dpZu lsu, S> ApS> A_L$ NZu \C R>.

bpfpV$ Ly$m_p d_pS> bpfpV$ S> `pqgspZp\u lh dybC fl R> sd_p hX$hpAp `pqgspZp_p Xy$Nf_p S>_ dqv$fpdp `|fuAp lsp. L$`_uAp_p _pd D`f\u Ap`Z lh ku^p S>_ su\L$fp_p _pd `f S> AphuA. d_pS> bpfpV$ su\L$fp_p _pdp D`f\u L$V$gpL$ _pdp k|Qep. F>jcv$h (dybCdp lufp_u AL$ L$`_uhpmpA `psp_u L$`_u_y _pd F>jc X$pedX$$T fpey R>), ArS>s_p\, kch, Arc_v$_, kydrs, `cy, ky`p, Qcy, `y`v$s, iusg_p\, epk, hpky`|e, rhdg_p\, A_s_p\, ^d_p\, iprs_p\, Ly$\y, Af, dgu, drZkyhs, _rd_p\, `p_p\ A_ dlphuf A\hp h^dp_ hpdu. cNhp_ rih_p 1,000 _pdp R> sdp "su\L$f' `Z AL$ _pd R> AV$g S>_sf rlvy$Ap bpmL$_y _pd su\L$f fpMu iL$ R>.

Ap L$V$pf_p hpQL$ O_epd kOhuA sd_p Ly$Vy$b_p gpL$p_p rhhpv$ kl_ L$fu_ sd_p `y_y _pd rhhhp_ fpey R>. rhhhp_ A dhsfpdp AL$ F>rj lsp. rhhhp_ AV$g k|e `Z \pe. sdZ dj fpri_p L$V$gpL$ kyv$f ArslprkL$ L$ ^prdL$ _pdp k|Qep R>. AL$ge, ApdL$pf, Ardg, AgpqL$L$, ANv$, Agn, Ahrshd_ (L$pduf_p fp), Arcdey, Ah\pdp, Abfuj, Apiyspj (iL$f), Aq, AhrsL$p, Apd`pgu, Bfphsu (_v$u), Afhgu, A_prdL$p, Afy^$rs, Ah^i, A_pls (v$e `pk Aphgy Q), A_s_p\ A_ Arc_v$_.

d_pS> bpfpV$ L$y L$ OZp Ly$Vy$bpdp v$uL$fu_p _pd v$hu_p _pd `f\u `pX$ R>, `Z v$hu_p _pdhpmu v$uL$fuAp vy$:Mu \pe R> shp AdyL$ Ly$Vy$bpdp hld R> s\u v$desu, vy$Np, p`v$u hNf _pd fMpsp _\u. kpkfphpmp `Z Aphp hlddp dp_sp lpe sp hlz_y _pd vy$Np lpe sp bv$gu_ ai_bg _pd fpM R>. Ap`Zp NyS>fpsuAp huV$u L$ qX$`g L$ fuV$p S>hp _pdp fpM R>, `Z pk_p dpkk ilfdp Aphp _pdp NyS>fpsuAp fpMu iL$sp _\u. L$pC NyS>fpsu s_p bpmL$_y Aphy _pd dpkk_u frS>Vudp _p^phhp e L$ rdV$_ S>hy v$uL$fp_y _pd _p^phhp e sp sZ kpNv$_pdy fS| L$fhy `X$ R> L$ s ANS> Apgpv$_p bp` R>! `Z cpfsdp Aphy b^y Qpg R>. OZpA `y_p _pd frie_ AhL$piep_ `yV$q_L$ D`f\u `Z `pX$y R>.

kf fysd dkpZuA `0 hj ky^u dl_s L$fu_ _pd D`f_y `ysL$ gMgy. Ap `ysL$ Aepf ApDV$ Apa q`V$ R>. s_u `sph_p X$$_ L$pgS>_p X$pefV$f A_ BX$peyfpr`e_ apBgpgp_p `pakf X$p. Ak. Ad. L$$ӥA gMgu. sdZ `sph_pdp gMgy L$, "_pddp rkV$ `phf R>. u fpdL$Z `fdlk L$y R> L$ `ps sprL$ rhr^ L$fsp epf AdyL$ Anfp bpgsp A_ A Anfp_u spL$ps_ A_ychsp. iv$dpe i[s R>. bpmL$_y _pd gsu hMs dpbp`_y A_ bu_y dp cfpC S>hy šCA. _pd A dp_hu_p Apdp R>. `ips dlpkpNf_p V$p`yAp_p gpL$p dp_ R> L$ dp_hu_p _pddp s_u `k_pqgV$u DNf \pe R>. s_p [`qfV$_u R>pep _pddp v$Mpe R>.' afu\u Ap gM_p As dpbp`_ A_yfp^ L$fy Ry> (A_yfp^ kfk _pd R>!) L$ bpmL$p_p _pdp M|b S> šCrhQpfu_-ipue Yb `pX$.

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