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1 qX$kbf, 2000
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1932_y hj. _qX$epv$ `pk_y DfkX$p Npd. Apd sp `V$gp_y Npd L$lhpe. bpZ_p Qpf`pQ MpfX$p Mfp. sdp\u AL$ bpZ L$yVy$bdp\u dp A_ b v$uL$fuAp epf Npddp _hfpu Dkh lpe epf Nfbp Nhfphhp e. kp\ sd_p _p_L$X$p cpC lpe. s_ R>pL$fu S>hp L$`X$p `lfph A_ QpV$guAp hpm. R>pL$fp_ gpgQ AV$gu S> L$ ep glpZu dmi. AV$g lpi lpi A Dkhdp e.

A_ Apd klS>`Z s_pdp kNus_p k|f qkQpsp Nep. glpZu_u gpgQ i$ \egu kNus_u A kaf ApS> A R>pL$fp_ A \p_ `lpQpX$p R> ep dp s_y _pd bpgpe A S> `|fsy R>. `yfyjpd D`pepe.

`yfyjpdcpC_u kNus_u kaf i$ \C ApS>\u 60 hj `lgp, dp R> hj_u Jdf. A_ Ae 17 hk dpf kp\.

Nphp_y sp ZQpf hj_u Jdf\u S> i$ \C Ney lsy. Npd_u ipmpdp L$pC ai_ lpe, Npddp _pfsp_p Dkh lpe, L$pC L$l NpAp AV$g bk Nphp_y.

ipmpdp Npe_`^p lpe sp rhS>sp_u V$pau `f sd_y _pd L$psfpC_ S> Aph. Apk`pk_p Npdpdp `Z, R>L$ kyfs ky^u gpL$p Zsp L$ X$pV$f r`sp_p Ap `y Npe R>. Nphpdp sp dp `pk\u kpcmgp gpL$Nusp, cS>_p, Nfbp Ahy b^y S> lpe.

A S>dp_pdp l NyS>fpsu L$rhsp_ Nusdp Y$pmu_ Nhpsu _lpsu. S|>_u fNc|rd_p Npe_p A_ rk_dp_p Npe_p_p hpl Qpgsp lsp. epf radkNus r_cm lsy. ipue fpNp `f Ap^pqfs ^|_ b_su. `yfyjpdcpC_p iv$pdp L$luA sp, "epf dgX$udL$k lsp, Aepf dgX$ubL$k R>.'

gplpf fqX$ep `f\u Dspv$ bX$ Nygpd Agu Mp_p ipue Npe_-Wy$dfu A_ _|fS>lp_p L$W$ Nhpegp d^yf qadu Nusp kpqfs \sp. _p_L$X$p `yfyjpd_p L$p__ A hfpA rhrh^ Apfpl-Ahfpl_p `qfQe L$fpep.

A A_ych-kdq ApS>e sd_p L$W$dp\u fgpe R>.

NpeL$u_p `pep AV$g ipue kNus. ZQpf hj_u Ddf Nphp_u i$Aps \C Q|L$u lsu `Z `pep QZphp_y epf i$ \ey epf Npd_p AL$ hX$ug sd_u V$gV$ `pfMu_ sd_ Adv$phpv$ gC Nep.

A hMs Adv$phpv$dp OZu _pV$L$L$`_uAp Qpgsu. AL$ _pV$L$L$`_u_y "A`fdpsp' _pd_y _pV$L$ cS>hZu dpV$ sepf \C Ney lsy. A S>dp_pdp _pV$L dpV$_y r\eV$f lpe ep S> b^p L$gpL$pfp flsp A_ sd_y fkpXy$ `Z ep S> lpe. b^p L$gpL$pfp Apfpd L$fsp lsp epf L$`_u_p d_S>f kp\ s hX$ug `yfyjpd_u ApmMpZ L$fphu.

d_S>f Nphp_y L$y. AL$ hpf, b hpf, Ad ZQpf hpf sd_u `pk NhX$pey. sd_y Nus kpcmu_ b^p S> Nu Nep. d_S>f sp Myi \C Nep. sZ _pV$L$_p X$pefV$f_ L$y, "L$pg _pV$L$dp Ap_u `pk NhX$phuA. _pV$L$_ qf`pk kpfp dmi.'

s hMs eyrTL$g g h^pf \sp. AL$ _pV$L$dp 15-17 Nusp lpe. hk dpf D`f hk dpf `X$. _pV$L$ `|fy \sp khpf_p Qpf`pQ hpN.

`yfyjpd S> Npey s S> ^|_dp _hp iv$p _pMu_ Nus sepf L$fhp dpV$ _qX$epv$\u spbX$spb eps fkL$rh fOy_p\ bc$_ bpgphpep.

d_S>f L$y L$, "Ap R>pL$fp `pk Adpf _pV$L$dp NhX$phhy R>.' `yfyjpd ApW$\u v$k hMs šegu rhS>e c$_p L$pi rQ_u "_frkl cNs' qad_y Nus Npey, "bu_p d^yf d^yf Ly$R> bpg.' fkL$rhA šX$y, "kp^y QfZL$dg rQ šX$.' bk `R>u sp AL$ AL$ `[s Nhpsu NC A_ AL$ `R>u AL$ `[s gMpsu NC. `Z R>pL$fp `lgu hpf V$S> `f Aph R> _ NcfpC S>i sp? AV$g _$u \ey L$ š Ahy \pe sp s_ V$S> `f\u ^uf flu_ MkL$phu gC_ b $r`ep Ap`u_ Of dpL$gu v$hp. `R>u khpg A lsp L$ A Nus _pV$L$dp NpW$hhy ep?

Mpk `yfyjpd `pk Nus NhX$phhp dpV$ kNdp afapf L$fpep A_ bu qv$hk _pV$L$ cS>hpey. `yfyjpd Npegp Nus_ 17 hk dpf dep.

A kde hk dpf dp Nusp_ S> dm Ahy _lpsy. _p_u _p_u L$`_uAp NpdX$pdp _pV$L$ cS>hhp e. fp'MNpf L$ fpZL$v$hu Ahy L$pC _pV$L$ lpe. Adp rkfpS> S>etkl fp'MNpf_ dpfu _pM A_ MNpf AV$gp kfk fus `X$u e L$ gpL$p_ d Aph sp gpL$p `pR>p A ku_ dpV$ hk dpf Ap`. A_ MNpf `Z `pR>p Ecp \pe, gX$ A_ hmu `X$. L$gpL$pf A_ nL$p-b_ hQ_p Apdue BhphdV$_p A S>dp_p lsp.

A kde dybC_p `L$pfp Adv$phpv$dp _hy _pV$L$ \pe AV$g s_y qf`pqVN L$fhp Aph. dybC\u epf hZu, R>pep, rQ`V$ S>hp dNrT_p NV$ \sp. sdp "A`fdpsp' _pV$L$dp Nus Npsp `yfyjpd_p apV$p R>`pep lsp.

Ap L$mpL$pfh__u i$Aps S> hk dpf\u \C lsu, `Z L$mpL$pf_p h_ ep` šCA. 1940dp Adv$phpv$dp A `lgp V$S> ip. `R>u 1944_u kpgdp cpNu_ dybC Aphu Nep. Apde, qv$dpNdp qadp_y c|s cfpegy. Npddp lsp epf rd_ ep cZhp S>hp_ blp_ rdp kp\ kpBL$g `f X$bgkhpfudp _qX$epv$ S>sp. ep _pqv$ep, š_ L$phk, AipL$ Ly$dpf_u qadp šsp. d_dp kss BR>p kmhm L$ AipL$ Ly$dpf_u qaddp L$pd L$fhy.

`Z `R>u dybC\u TV$ `pR>p hs_ aep A_ 1947dp Ly$Vy$b_u `fhp_Nu gC_ dybC Apep. `Z Al] _ L$pC W$pdW$L$pτ L$ _ kNyhlpgy. i \ep gpbp kOj Ap dlp_Nfdp `psp_y \p_ b_phhp_p.

`yfyjpdcpC hu. ipspfpd_p Vy$qX$epdp Nep sp ep Vy$qX$epdp lpS>f dpZk `|R>ey, "ep L$fNp?'

`yfyjpdcpCA L$y, "L$pd L$fNp.'

S>hpb dep "iL$g v$Mu l ApB_ d?'

^uf ^uf epg Apep L$ qadpdp sp L$pd _l] dm, `Z d_dp ^f`s lsu L$ AhpS> sp R>.

dNghpX$udp kNusL$pf L$epZcpC flsp s_u kpd_p dL$p_dp AL$ L$rh flsp, hZgpg L$rh. s Adv$phpv$_p _pV$L$dp dep lsp. Ad_p dmp` \C Nep. `yfyjpdcpC_ L$l L$, "Qpg dpf Of.'

b $d lsu. Adp Of_pL$fp (OpV$uAp)_u kp\ `yfyjpdcpC k|C S>sp.

flhp_y W$L$pτ sp `X$y, `Z kp\ kp\ kpakapC, `pZu cfhp_y Ahp L$pd `Z sdZ L$fhp_p Apep.

`R>u sp L$epZcpC kp\ `qfQe \ep. L$epZcpC_p r`sp_u L$qfepZp_u vy$L$p_ lsu. \X$p `f L$epZcpC sp epfL$ ApZv$cpC bksp. sAp ApL$pihpZudp bpmL$p dpV$_p L$pe$d "blz$`u'dp `yfyjpdcpC_ `Z gC S>sp. A hMs sd_p Ny`dp huZ šiu, qL$fZ k`V$, L$ZL$ps ipl, Afthv$ rhv$u, S>dc|rd_p dprgL$_u v$uL$fu cpfsu iW$ `Z lsp. epf fqX$ep sfa\u Qpf Ap_p `yfL$pf dmsp.

A S> ApL$pihpZu_p ApS>_p V$p` NX$ ApqV$V$_p Qpf Ap_phpmp kOj OZp gpbp Qpep lsp.

v$pgs rk_dp, S> MV$pD ApX$ _pV$L$ L$`_u sfuL$ ApmMpsy, s AL$ `pfku Ny`_u dprgL$u_y lsy. epf fNc|rd_u vy$r_ep_p qv$gu` Ly$dpf L$lhpsp dpV$f Aifa Mp_ "r`[k`pg' _pd_y _pV$L$ ep cS>hu fp lsp. sdp `yfyjpdcpCA AL$ bpmL$_u c|rdL$p L$fu lsu. epf qadL$`_uhpmp _pV$L$p šhp Mpk Aph. L$pC ApqV$V$ šCsp lpe, _hp ApBqX$ep šCsp lpe sp _pV$L$dp\u dmu e. _pV$L$ A_ rk_dp Apd AL$bu_p `epe lsp.

AL$ hpf S>kg spfg, fpZL$v$hu S>hu qadp_p pX$ykf-X$pefV$f A_ k_fpBT L$`_u_p dprgL$ hu. Ad. epk `Z _pV$L$ šhp Apep lsp. sdZ _pV$L$ šep `R>u `yfyjpdcpC_ bpgpep.

Ap A OX$u lsu epf sd_ `lgu hpf V$gV$ v$MpX$hp_p dpL$p dep. h_dp epfe cygphp_u _lpsu. hu. Ad. epk_u "ipdmip_p rhhpl' rad dpV$ qv$gu` ^pmqL$ep kNus Ap`hp_p lsp. sdp ipdmip A_ buš AL$ R>pL$fp cNp dmu_ fpk Nhfph R> Ahu rkeyAi_ lsu. A fpk lsp "l _V$_pNf, _v$_p gpg, hpkmu hNpX$u...' qv$gu`cpC kp\ A fpk Nphp_u sL$ dmu `yfyjpdcpC_.

_pqv$ep, š_ L$phk_u apBqV$Nhpmu AL$-b qadpdp _p_p _p_p fpg L$ep A_ L$V$guL$ qadpdp \pXy$Oτ Nphp_u sL$ `Z dmu. šL$ h_dp AL$ rhri$ V$r_N `pBV$ Aphhp_p lsp. A_ A R>hV$, blz fpl šhX$phu_ Apep.

NyS>fpsu qadpdp A hMs dgsp _peL$ rlfpB_p dpV$ Nusp Npsp. AL$ qad dpV$ sAp Aphu iep _l] AV$g A Nus _p_p `yfyjpd `pk NhX$phhpdp Apey. _p_p lsp epf AhpS> `Z suZp, R>pL$fu S>hp. AV$g L$pd \C Ney.

epf Nusp dpV$ \pmuhp_u fL$X$ b_su. A dpV$ Npdpap_ L$`_udp S>hy `X$. s `lgp qad_y i|qV$N A_ Nusp_y fL$pqX$N AL$ S> S>epA \pe. s hMs spfv$h `pk kV$g Vy$qX$ep lsp. dlb|b Mp_ sd_u qadp ep b_phsp. ep AL$ NyS>fpsu qad_y i|qV$N lsy. Adp `yfyjpdcpC_ Nphp_y lsy. Al] NpC gu^p `R>u Nusp_u qX$L$ b_phhp rlT dpV$k hpBk-HMV_p qafpS>ipl dlsp fpX$, apV$dp Vy$qX$ep lsp ep Nep.

HMVdp qfqS>ep_g A_ `pBhV$ fL$pqX$N dpV$ AL$ Vy$qX$ep lsp A_ bu Vy$rX$epdp qadu Nusp_y fL$pqX$N \sy. `yfyjpdcpC A qv$hkp spi L$fsp L$l R>, "lz Npsp lsp. ep AL$ kS>_ Ecp lsp. sdZ ep L$pC_ `|R>ey L$ Ap L$pZ Npe R>? dpfu ApmMpZ L$fphhpdp Aphu. ep bpSy>dp NyS>fpsu Nus_y fL$pqX$N `Z Qpgsy lsy. hkybl_ qv$hqV$ep A_ kp\uAp Npsp lsp. Adp L$pqL$gp šiu, dprg_u dlsp, k_ybpby D`epe A b^p lsp. kS>_ d_ `|R>ey L$ sy Npi? d_ \ey L$ Ap d_ NhX$phhp dpN R> s R> L$pZ? A lsp Arh_pi epk.'

hkdpf `yfyjpd hk dpf cpN-2

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?

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