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16 ApNV$, 2000
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  lpd`S> | L$pgrdV$$ | gM rhij | dpV$f awgdrZ

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S|>_u epv$p_ sp L$fphsy _pV$L$ dpV$f awgdrZ
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cph_Nf V$V$_p v$fbpf L$ZLy$dpftklA V$V$ Aprg[`k i$ L$fu epf 1945-46dp lz dlzhp_u d_ _\y L|g_p AguV$ lsp. lpC S>`-gpN S>` dpV$ cph_Nf S>C v$fbpf_u kpd L$hpk_p iyT `lfu_ `fX$ L$fu_ v$pX$hp_y lsy. L|g_p 99 V$L$p AguV$ `pk b|V$ iy Q`g_p `Z hs _l]. Ad dqV$L$ ky^u DOpX$p `N L|g S>sp. AV$g Aprgr`kdp cpN ghp v$fbpf sfa\u Ad_ L$hpk iyT dmsp. dpfu `yu L$ L$pC `Z dybCNfp_u `yu `pQdp-R>$p ^pfZdp cZ ep b|V$dpń A_ gNcN Qpf`pQ S|sp_u šX$u lpe R>. A_ Ap S|>_u hpsp_ epv$ L$fuA R>uA s ApS>_u _ Ndsy _\u. "sd DOpX$p `N afsp sp iy Adpfe afhy?' Adpfp L$pC ApNl _\u `Z Ad_ S|>_u hpsp L$fhp_u Apv$s `X$u NC R>.

dyybCdp hX$p ^p_ hu.`u.tkl _pL$pv$m_u Mpk gbdp AL$ ipue kNus_p L$pe$d kpcep epf `L$pfp A_ Mpk dldp_p_ S> Aphhp dmgy. cph_Nfdp "dpgh`rs dyS>'_y cygpg rhv$u_y "_pV$L$ `X$' AV$g dlpfp L$ZLy$dpfqkl sd_p fpZu kp\ _pV$L$ šhp Aph. L$pC rkeyqfV$u_u S>$f _l]. dlpfp kp\ `Z _pV$L$ Sy>A. Ad V$pbqfep q`V$-gpkdp `pk gC_ _pV$L$ šCA. dpdp_ Of\u _hp L$`X$p `lfu_, L$p_dp Asf_y `|dXy$ cfphu_ qbgpX$u ApX$u _ Esf s ep_dp fpMu_ _pV$L$ šhp S>CA. khpf L|$L$X$p bpg A_ smp\u v|$^_u `rieg V$_ Aph s_p bpOX$p_p sp v|$^_u Qp `u_, _pV$L$ šhp Aphgp DNfphpmp dS|>fp _pV$L$ šC_ `pR>p L$pd QY$u e. Z Ap_p A_ Qpf Ap_pdp _pV$L$ šhp dm. dybCdp cpNhpX$u Mps _pV$L$ Sy>Ap epf sdpfu ApNm_u kuV$dp v$_p bL$_p Qfd_ pZgpg v$hL$fZ _p_ bW$p lpe. B[X$e_ dQV$ Qbf_p dyM bpbycpC Qu_pe bW$p lpe L$ L$rh bpv$fpeZ A_ lpegML$ epsu v$h `Z bW$p lpe. A S>dp_pdp `pQ Ap_pdp "hX$ugp_p hpL$'_u qV$qL$V$ dmsu s dpV$ b`pf\u gpC_dp Ecy flhy `X$. `pQ L$gpL$ _pV$L$ Qpg. "duW$p gpep R> d_ ApS>_p DNfp' A Nus_p 11-11 hk dpf \pe. L$pqW$ephpX$\u dybC Aphgu cc|sNf_u v$uL$fu dpsubpC Ap Nus Npe A_ spmuAp D`f spmuAp `X$. hk dpf_p `kp_u `pV$guAp aL$pe.

dpsubpC_ epf KQpdp KQp-drl_ $p.1200_p `Npf dm. `Z s `psp_ iplfyM L$ L$pšg_u S>d ApC Ad _bf h_ L$lsu _l]. dpVy$Npdp s_p bNgp lsp. dNmv$pk_p Ofdp bW$gu. epf _pV$L$hpmu AV$k agpZp_u `_u _ L$lhpe, Ofdp bW$u L$lhpe. AdqfL$p_u `L$pX$ NpX$udp Of\u dL$A` L$fu_ dpsubpC cpNhpX$u Aph, AV$g _pV$L$fqkep gpL$p "dpsubpC', "dpsubpC' L$lu_ s_ šhp v$pX$. dpsubpC q$L$V$ gb Apa B[X$ep_u `Z dbf lsu, epf rh_y dpL$X$ A_ v$y aX$L$f hNf V$pbqfep q$L$V$ fdsp. buš _pV$L$_p lufp Aifa Mp_ dpgh`rs b_sp. s_p `Npf `Z dpsubpC S>V$gp. iy Qpqfehpmp AV$g s_p Apiuhpv$ ghp gpL$p Aph. Adv$phpv$dp Aifa Mp__u v$fNpl R> A_ ApS>e gpL$p ep s_ `uf dp_u_ dp_sp dp_ R>. 1950 ky^u Aifa Mp_, dpsubpC, epdpbpC, L$dgpv$hu L$ZpV$L$u, fpZu dgsp hNf KQp hf Npsu A_ X$pegpN_u qX$qghfu L$f s R>L$ r`V$- gpkdp kcmpe. 1950 `R>u _pV$L$_p V$S>_p dpB$pap_ Apep. huS>mu _lpsu epf qL$V$k_ gpBV$ `V$phsp. L$pmp fN_p Npm Q$fhpmu qL$V$k_ gpBV$ `R>u rbV$_\u kpfu s_u `V$pdk Aphu. cpNhpX$u_y r\eV$f v$iu _pV$L$ kdpS>_y lsy. s Qvy$gpg v$gkyMfpd ThfuA hQpsy gu^y. Ap Qvy$gpg AV$g L$ X$ppcpC L$rh lsp. cpe S> L$pC `L$pf_e Mbf li L$ Ahpf_hpf Ap`Z AL$ D[s bpguA R>uA s L$rh X$ppcpC Thfu_u R>.

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Ap L$rhA v$iu _pV$L$ kdpS>_u L$`_u_ `R>u\u afpbpv$_p L$`pm lfNpthv$ S>W$pcpC_ hQu v$u^u. lfNpthv$cpCA dybC_p _pV$L$_p ipMu_p_ fps_p DNfp L$fphhp_p qkgqkgp Qpgy L$ep. d|m huf`yf_p bpZ cygpg rhv$u L$fpQudp A[S>r_ef_p qX$gpdp gC_ `R>u gpMX$ kp\ `_pfp `pX$hp kp\ gpk `Z Qgphsp. L$fpQu\u dybC Apep. _pV$L$ gMhp dpX$p. sd_p gMgp 60 _pV$L$p v$iu _pV$L$ kdpS> A_ gduL$ps _pV$L$ kdpS> hNfA cS>ep. lfNpthv$ iW$ dfu Nep epf sd_u `_u Ddgnu hsu cygpg rhv$u, L$pkdcpC A_ d|mQv$ dpdpA L$`_u_ pdpqZL$ fus Qgphu. _pV$L$pdp Nhpegp Nusp_ Ad lpCL|$gdp, V$_dp, _v$u_u q`L$q_L$dp L$ hffp_u _dp Aspnfudp Npsp. lfp _pV$L$p_p Nusp bpmL$p_ L$W$\ \C S>sp. ApS> byNuhyNudp bpmL$p radu Nusp_u _L$g L$f R>, NpC iL$sp _\u. cygpg rhv$u_p Nusp- "dpf kpkqfe S>C L$pC L$lš AV$gXy$ L$ usd ApZp dpL$g' A_ "duW$p gpep R> d_ ApS>_p DNfp' sdS> "^_hp_ h_ dpZ R>' A_ cdqfep L|$hp_ L$pW$X$...' hNf Nusp Ad_ L$W$\ \C Negp. dybCdp L$pNk lpDk _L$ _pQ_pfuAp flsu. s dyS>fphpmuAp OfpL$p_ Nus kcmphhp dpV$ _hp _hp Nus_u ip^ dpV$ NyS>fpsu _pV$L$p šhp Aphsu. V$pm hmu_ dyS>fphpmu Aph. D`fpD`fu hk dpf L$fuL$fu_ Nusp kpcmu_ L$W$\ L$fu g. cygpg rhv$u NyS>fu Nep R>. sd_p Nusp l h R>. sd_p `y rh_eL$ps rhv$u gNcN 400 `p_p_y _pV$L$_p Nusp_y `ysL$ NV$ L$f_pf R>. AL$ Y$by AV$g L$ b `kp_p rk$pdp dybC_u V$pddp kaf L$f_pfp s hMs_p cpeipmu dlsp $p.75_p `Npf Mpsp lpe. "v$idp' bfp-R>pL$fp lpe. s_ $p.25_p "d_u ApX$f' L$fu_ bpL$u_p `kp _pV$L$ A_ Mphpdp MQ. AL$ `kp_u _pV$L$_p Nus_u Qp`X$u V$pddp bW$p bW$p šf\u Npsp Npsp hpQ. Ap S|>_u hpsp s hMs_p _pV$L$p_p Qpf L$f_pfp 76 hj_p hS>gpg hkpZu _pd_p AX$hV$pBTf h^y Z R>.

Ap S|>_p S>dp_p_ epv$ L$fuA R>uA A_ ApS>_p V$rgrhT__p L$X$d L$pe$dp A_ dpY$ epv$ _ fl shp Nusp-ANe Nusp (Ad Ne Nusp S> hpQgp) kpcmuA R>uA epf S|>_p S>dp_p epv$ Aph R>. hpe-Vy$-L$_p pgd 2000_u kpg_p pgd lsp. A DL$gu Nep R>. `Z 1900\u 1945 ky^u_p S|>_p Nusp_u hpsp S>_ Ad hpe-h_-L$ pgd L$luA s le Ad_ ksph R>. 1940_p v$peL$pdp TpTdf Npd b`pf Z hpe V$`pg Aph epf "b^y' kpsprlL$ V$`pgdp Aph. b`pf S>du_ V$`pgu_u fpl šCA. V$`pgu dpv$p lpe sp qv$hk Mpgu e. Adpfp A S|>_p S>dp_pdp `pR>p Adpfp hX$ugp sd_p S|>_p S>dp_p_u hpsp L$f!

Ad Z gpXy MpC S>sp sp hX$ugp hV$ dpfsp Ad_ L$l L$ Ad bpZp 20-20 gpXy MpC S>sp. 20 dpBg v|$f S>dhp_y lpe sp bpZ S>dhp Mpsf `N Qpgu_ 20 dpBg_y Npdsfy L$fu _pM, Qpgu_ _l] v$pX$u_. Npd_ Tp` AL$ cpdZ gpg L$`Xy$ gC `pQR> cpdZp_ cX$L$ph. cpdZp v$pX$, 20 dpBg `lpQu_ AV$L$. ep eS>dp_ sd_ dfu Qphhp Ap` A_ `R>u hpV$L$p cfu_ Ou `u e. `R>u sdpLy$-Q|_p Qpmu_ apL$X$p dpf. 20-20 gpXy$ A_ hpV$L$p Ou `Qu e.

ipMu_ dpZkp Mpk cph_Nf _pV$L$ šhp e. "L$pvy$ dL$fpZu' _pV$L$dp dpsubpC_ šhp e. dybC L$ cph_Nf\u Aphu_ gY$phuQY$phu_ _pV$L$_u A_ Arc_u_u hpsp L$f. agpZu bpC_ agpZp L$`pm iqW$ep L$ cpqVep iqW$ep\u lfpd_p lg (lfpd_p ksp_) flu Nep Ahy L$l.

Aphu b^u S|>_u hpsp_ DMm shy AL$ _pV$L$ gC_ d|m d_Nf_p Apihpm oprs_p hpqZep _pd Qvy$ ipl AdqfL$p_p bpV$_ ilf\u dybC Apep R>. Qvy$ ipl kss hpe-h_-L$ pgd\u `uX$pe R>. s le L$rh _dv$_ c|ep _\u. A_ `L$pfp_ c|ghp v$sp _\u. Ap hMs s "dpV$f awgdrZ_y' _pV$L$ gC_ Apep R>. sdp S|>_u cpNhpX$u_p _pV$L$_u hpsp_y lpg_p _h\u `pQ_u _pL$fu L$f_pfp Ap^yr_L$ dlspAp_u hpsp kp\ OfOfτ L$fu_ "dpV$f awgdrZ'_y dpZhpgpeL$ _pV$L$ bsph R>. Qpf `ppdp AL$ $`pmp Qlfp, Npfp hp_, R>pL$fu S>hp lp\`N_p ^pfv$pf ApNmp A_ dpsubpC S>hu ^pfv$pf ApMp ^fphsp rQfpN hpfp h_gsp A_ awgdrZ_y `p cS>h R>. _pV$L$_p Qpf `pp b^p S> Nusp Npe R>. cpNhpX$udp lsy sd Al] lpdpq_ed R>. sbgQu R>. fpN `yfph_pf b kNp\u R>. DL$j dTydv$pf Nusp_p hk dpf `X$ph R>. rQfpN hpfp Npfp R> s\u u_y `p cS>h R>. S|>_p S>dp_pdp R>pL$fuAp _pV$L$dp L$pd L$fhp Aphsu _l]. `yfyjp d|R> dyX$phu R>pL$fu_p cpN cS>hsp. dpsubpC Aphu epf\u u`p dmhp dpX$p. rQfpN hpfp dybC_p iqW$ep_ ggQph shy u`p cS>h R>.

dybCdp Qp`X$p gM_pfp dlsp L$ qdg_p dyL$pv$d `pQ Ap_pdp cygpg rhv$u_y _pV$L$ šC iL$sp shy lh fy _\u. Qvy$ ipl Aakpk L$f R> L$ cpNhpX$u r\eV$f hQu_ AL$ L$`pm hpfkv$pf v$pqmep L$fu Nep R>. cpNhpX$u_ AL$ S|>_p dpfL$ sfuL$ fpMhy šCsy lsy. dybC_p `hu r\eV$fdp dpV$f awgdrZ cS>hpe R>. sdp dyL$pv$d, L$pfLy$_ dlsp L$ `sy nL$ sfuL$ v$Mpsp _\u.

`hu r\eV$fdp cS>hpsp _pV$L$p kfk lpe R> A_ Qvy$ ipl_y awgdrZ sp AL$ Aagps|_ _pV$L$ R>. `Z s _pV$L$ šhp sdpfu Akp_u _pV$ h`fpC e. ApdnL$ Aphp _pV$L$\u hqQs fl R>.

DL$j dTydv$pf, d_pS> ipl, rhL$pk dlsp A_ rQfpN hpfp-A Qpf `pp _pV$L$_p Nusp A_ hpe-Vy$-h__p _pV$L$_u hpsp L$f R>. OZp S|>_p _pV$L$p_p Nusp-S>dp dpV$p cpN_p cygpg rhv$uA gep R> A_ S>_ Ap`Z gpL$Nus dp_uA R>uA s `hu r\eV$fdp _pV$L$ hMs lpdpq_ed kp\ Nhpe R>. afu\u 1945_y cpNhpX$u A_ hk dpf_u spmuAp kcmpe R>. cpNhpX$udp `kp_u `pV$gu\u hk dpf \sp lsp. afu S|>_u hpsp epv$ Aph R>.

fOy_p\ bc$$ A_ cygpg rhv$u dyS>fphpmu dpV$ _pV$L$dp Mpk rlv$u Nusp fQu_ _pV$L$_p `pp_ dpY$$ Nhfphsp lsp. cpe S> L$pC_ Mbf R> L$ "dpNg ApTd'dp "dpl `_OV$ ` _v$$gpg R>X$ Nep f' A Nus d^ybpgp "Npe' R> s Nus dybC_p v$iu kdpS>_p "R> rhS>e' _pV$L$ dpV$ fOy_p\ bcˡ$$ gMgy. s Nus `R>u\u L$pNk lpDkhpmu dyS>fphpmu bpCAp `Z Npsu. Ap Nus Qvy$ ipl_p awgdrZ _pV$L$dp rQfpN hpfp_p L$d_ue L$W$ kpcmhp dmi.

rQfpN hpfp awgdrZ_p hidp S> fus $`pmu gg_p_p Arc_e L$f R> s sd _S>f _ Sy>Ap sp dpfp hMpZ_p ip A\ R>? |a Apa `yqX$$N BT B_ BqV$N. _pV$L$ `|fy$ \ep `R>u nL$p A_ Arc_spAp ^e ^e \pe R>. OZp_u ApMdp TmTrmep lpe R>. dpfu ApMdp TmTrmep A hps_p R> L$ Aphp kyv$f _pV$L$ dpV$ dybC_p NyS>fpsu DpN`rsApA $p. 15 L$fpX$ MQ}_ AL$ 5000 nL$p_u L$`qkV$uhpmp lpg bpep lpe sp ep as $p. 75_u qVqL$V$$ fpM sp dpfp Apd hpQL$p_ Ap _pV$L$ šhy `pkpe. ApS> sp ie _\u. Qvy$ ipl Mpk qqhrgX$ hN_u spmuAp `X$phu_ AdqfL$p Qpep S>i. dybCdp ksu qV$qL$V$_p _pV$L$ šhp dm s_u Tybi lh Qvy$ ipl Qgph sp kpfy.

(`hu r\eV$fdp eyApfu 2000dp dpV$f awgdrZ_p ip šC_ gML$ Ap qf`pk gMgp.)

L$p[s c$rgrMs Ae gMp hpQhp dpV$ Ap `[s [gL$ L$fp

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?

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