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L$R>_p ES>mp Brslpk_y L$pmy L $fZ-
Nygpdp_p h`pf

v$n drld `p^u, cyS>

A_L$ ES>mu L$lpZuAp\u D_s L$R>_p Brslpkdp AL$ L$pmu L$pfdu L$\pe ^fbpegu `X$u R>. A R> Nygpdp_p h`pf_u hps. AL$ kde Ap Adp_yju h`pfdp L$R>u h`pfuAp NmpX|$b lsp A L$R>u Brslpk_y AL$ hfhy L$fZ R>. gpMX$u kpL$mp, QpbyL$_p L$pfX$p A_ iesp_u ehlpf_u hpsp ApS>e Ap`Zp $hpX$p MX$p L$fu v$ sd R>.

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A kde OZp v$ipdp Nygpdu_u \p A[shdp lsu. eyfp` A_ Mpk L$fu_ AdqfL$pdp Nygpdp_u S>bfu dpN lsu. AdqfL$p_p L$`pk_p rhipm Msfpdp, bprTg_p L$pau_p hphsfdp A_ hV$ BX$uT_u hpX$uApdp ksp L$ das dS|>fp dmhhp dprgL$p sgksp lsp. Apfbp ApqL$p_p ApsqfL$ rhspfpdp lzdgp L$fu eyhp_ u-`yfyjp_ `L$X$u gsp A_ `R>u qafNuAp_ hQu dpfsp. Ap qafNu h`pfuAp sd_ AdqfL$p, hV$ BX$uT hNf \m dpL$gu dbgL$ L$dpZu L$fsp. Brslpk _p^ R> L$ qafNu h`pfuApA C.k. 1680\u 1786 v$frdep_ huk gpM\u h^y Nygpdp_y hQpZ L$ey lsy. AY$pfdu kv$u_p As cpNdp sp bu v$ip_p h`pfuAp `Z Ap Adp_hue ehkpedp šX$php dpX$p. Apdp L$R>u h`pfuAp `Z bpL$ps _ lsp. pfcdp sAp Ap h`pfdp T`gphsp MQL$psp lsp, `Z dbgL$ _ap_u gpgQ sd_ ApMf `gpmu NC.

C.k. 1718dp `|h ApqL$p_p qL$_pfp_p v$ip A_ Apk`pk_p V$p`yApdp Nygpdp_p h`pf rafNuAp_p lp\dp\u ApfbpA gC gu^p. 1804dp dL$s_p kygsp_ kev$ kev$ `|h ApqL$p `lpep. s_u kp\ s_p rhpk`p L$R>u h`pfuAp `Z lsp. 1809dp kygsp_ `psp_u fpS>^p_u TpTubpfdp \p`u. A kde eam, kp`pfu A_ _prmef_p h`pfdp L$R>uAp kq$e lsp. L$R>u `Y$uApdp S>fpd rih_u `Y$u Ahg _bf NZpsu. S>fpd_p cpC Bb rih_u `Y$u bu _bf lsu. fpe_u S>L$pshk|gu_p Bfp `Z Ap b cpCAp `pk lsp. ^ud^ud _prmef, kp`pfu L$ eam_p h`pf_y \p_ Nygpdp_p h`pf gu^y A_ `gp h`pf sp dp blp_y S> b_u fp.

ApNm S>sp iW$ S>fpd rih `psp_p rhpky dy_ud g^p v$pd_ `Y$u_p hluhV$ kp`u L$R> `fs Nep. dy_ud Nygpdp_p h`pf_ Qfd kudpA `lpQpX$u v$u^p. `Y$udp Nygpdp_p h`pf dpV$ AgN rhcpN i$ L$fu A_p lhpgp fpd `fpN_ kpep. fpdA `Y$u_p Npv$pdp Nygpdp\u cfu v$u^p.

fpd_u ApNhp_u _uQ dpV$u lr\epfb^ V$pmuAp fps_p kde kuv$uAp_p NpdX$p `f pV$L$su. kis eyhp_-eyhsuAp_ `L$X$u ghpdp Aphsp A_ kpd_p L$f_pf_ W$X$p L$gS> W$pf L$fpsp. `L$X$pegpAp_ Nmp A_ lp\`Ndp gpMX$u `$p kp\_u S>fp\u S>L$X$u ghpdp Aphsp. Nygpdp bmhp _ L$f, cpNhp_u L$prii _ L$f A dpV$ sd_ A^c|ep fMpsp A_ L$pfX$p_p dpf dpfhpdp Aphsp.

hQpegp L$ hQpZ dpV$_p Nygpdp_ hlpZp_p cX$qL$epdp OV$p-bL$fp_u S>d W$pku v$hpsp. c|M-sfk _ budpfu_ L$pfZ gpbu v$qfepC kaf v$frdep_ kepb^ Nygpdp dfZ `pdsp. budpf A_ _ bQ shp Nygpdp_ hsh v$qfepdp aL$u v$hpdp Aphsp. BrslpkL$pfp _p^ R> L$ `L$X$pegp v$f kp Nygpddp\u dpX$ huk hsp kpNf`pf `lpQsp. dfu S>sp A "R|>V$u' S>sp A_ bpL$u_p dpV$ h_cf S> _l], `Y$u v$f `Y$u_u eps_pde Nygpdu _kubdp flsu.

dpX$hu A_ dyv$fpdp `Z Ap Nygpdp_ V$p[TV$ v$frdep_ gphhpdp Aphsp. ApS> `Z L$V$gpe cpqV$ep Nl\p sd S> Aep_p rhipm dL$p_p_p cX$qL$ep_u v$uhpgpdp Nygpdp_ S>L$X$hp dpV$_p gpMX$u L$X$p A_ S>fp šhp dm R>. Ap gM_pf bpm`Zdp dpX$hu_p cpqV$ep h`pfuAp `pk sAp_p `|hš_p "`fp$dp'_u hpsp kpcmgu R>.

ApNm S>sp rbV$__u kfL$pf Nygpdp_p h`pf b^ L$fphhp OZp e_ L$ep, `Z dbgL$ AphL$ R>pX$hp kygsp_p L$d sepf \pe? ApMf 1872dp rbqV$i kfL$pf kf bV$g uAf_p hX$`Z lW$m AL$ L$rdi__u fQ_p L$fu. sdp L$R>_p sL$pgu_ v$uhp_ iplbyu_ D`fps AL$ tlvy$ A_ AL$ dy[gd h`pfu_p kdphi L$ep, S>\u L$R>u tlvy$-dy[gd h`pfuAp `f cph `X$u iL$.

uAf L$rdi_ A_ kygsp_ bfNk hQ gpbu hpV$pOpV$p Qpgu. kygsp_ ANš_ _pfpS> L$fhp _lpsp dpNsp sd dbgL$ AphL$ `Z Nydphhp _lpsp BR>sp. Ap\u L$pL$Xy$ N|Qhpegy S> fy. ApMf rbqV$i kfL$pf sL$pgu_ dlpfph v$im_p k`L$ kp^u sd_u dv$v$ dpNu. C.k. 1836_u R>$u abyApfuA v$imA TpTubpf_p L$R>u h`pfuAp_ Dءiu_ AL$ afdp_ blpf `pX$y A_ Nygpdp_p h`pf `f kv$sf rsb^ lf L$ep.

rbqV$i kfL$pf L$R>_p dlpfph_u dv$v$ ghu `X$u A S> v$iph R> L$ Ap S>Nrgescep h`pfdp L$R>u h`pfu L$V$gu lv$ kX$phpegp lsp. dlpfph_p lzL$d_p `Ng TpTubpf_p L$R>u h`pfuApA kepb^ Nygpdp_ dys L$ep. A cpqV$ep h`pfu_u `Y$uA AL$guA 25,000 Nygpdp_ R>pX$p s_p `f\u kdN ApL$ L$V$gp KQp li s_p epg Aphi.

L$R>u h`pfuApA Nygpdp_p OZp`v$ h`pf b^ L$fsp A ehkpedp dpV$u ApV$ Aphu. Agb, Apfb h`pfuApA fs-dpk_p Ap h`pf Qpgy S> fpep. ApMf kygsp_ kev$ bfNk_y dfZ \ey A_ s_p _bmp cpC Mguap_p lp\dp ipk__u ^yfp Aphu. sL$ dmsp S> ANšA s_u `pk\u hluhV$ ApQL$u gu^p. A_ 1897\u Nygpdp_p h`pf `f k`|Z rsb^ d|ep.

- Apd L$R>_p ES>mp Brslpk_y AL$ L$pmy L$fZ `|fy \ey. `Z L$l R> L$ dpX$hu A_ dyv$fp_p A c|Nc Npv$pdpdp AX$^u fps c|sL$pm kp\ ssy kp^sp Nygpdp_p E_p E_p r_kpkpA kS>gu O|V$__p ApS>e Alkpk \C iL$ R>.

(X$p. lqfL$Z v$hkf_p 1971dp rk \egp gM_p Ap^pf)

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?


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