'I should have been the gold medallist'
If anti-doping regulations had been strictly enforced, Calvin Smith, a gifted American sprinter with a distinctive upright style, would have left the 1988 Seoul Games as the Olympic 100 metres champion and world-record holder.
On the day that changed the face of the Olympics and his sport forever, Smith finished fourth behind Ben Johnson, Carl Lewis and Linford Christie. Today he is the only man among the first five finishers in Seoul untouched by a drugs scandal.
"I should have been the gold medallist," Smith has said of a race that has been variously described as the dirtiest and most corrupt in history.
"Throughout the last five or 10 years of my career, I knew I was being denied the chance to show that I was the best clean runner," he told journalists. "I knew I was competing against athletes who were on drugs."
Image: Ben Johnson of Canada, Calvin Smith of the USA, Linford Christie of Great Britain and Carl Lewis of the USA sprint
Photographs: Allsport UK/Allsport/Getty Images
'I felt like the clean guy going out and trying to win'
Canadian Johnson was infamously hustled out of Seoul after testing positive for the steroid stanozolol following his victory in a world-record 9.79 seconds.
Lewis, who clocked 9.92 seconds, was promoted to the gold medal ahead of Britain's Christie who then took the silver in front of Smith. Lewis's time was eventually recognised as the official world record when Johnson's mark of 9.83 seconds, set at the 1987 Rome world championships, was also erased.
Johnson's time in Rome was an astonishing tenth of a second faster than Smith's then world record of 9.93 seconds set at altitude in 1983. Smith won consecutive world 200 metres titles but never a global 100 gold.
In the popular mythology of the time Lewis, a glorious sprinter and long jumper who won four gold medals at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, was the clean-cut hero and Johnson a scowling villain.
It was an image Lewis was keen to foster.
"In the old Westerns they had the guy in the white hat and the black hat," Lewis said years later. "I felt like the clean guy going out and trying to win, I was the guy in the white hat, trying to beat this evil guy."
Not everybody warmed to Lewis and his incessant self-promotion coupled with a holier-than-thou attitude to drugs offenders. The sceptics felt vindicated when it was revealed in 2003 that Lewis had failed three drugs tests for stimulants during the 1988 Olympic trials.
Image: Ben Johnson of Canada (left) leads Calvin Smith of the US (second left), Linford Christie of Britain (second right) and Carl Lewis of the US (right)
Smith would have been next in line for the gold medal
Under the rules of the time he should have been banned from the Games but the results were covered up by the US Olympic Committee after it accepted his plea that he had innocently taken a herbal supplement.
Christie failed a test for the stimulant pseudoephedrine after the final but was cleared on a split decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) medical commission when he argued that he had taken it inadvertently in ginseng tea.
If Lewis had been banned from the Games and Christie disqualified, Smith would have been next in line for the gold medal and his world record would have stood once Johnson's times were scrubbed from the books.
Image: Calvin Smith of the USA
Photographs: Bob Martin/Getty Images
The noise and furore at Seoul airport when Lewis and Johnson arrived for the Olympics resembled the frenzy associated with a world heavyweight prize fight featuring Muhammad Ali.
At the opening media conferences, Lewis was as articulate as always. Johnson, whose natural shyness was exacerbated by a stutter and an accent showing traces of both his native Jamaica and his adopted homeland, said little.
Johnson's coach, the intense and ambitious Charlie Francis, was both fluent and relaxed while continuing to conceal an explosive back story which shocked the world when he revealed all to a Canadian government inquiry in the following year.
During the 1976 Montreal Games, Francis realised drugs were a vital ingredient in the East German success story and, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, formerly secret documents showed he was right.
Francis also knew that drugs, which allowed athletes to train harder and longer, were only one element in a sophisticated programme but at the elite level, as he explained to Johnson, a one percent difference in performance meant a one-metre advantage in the 100 metres.
Image: Ben Johnson leads in the men's 100 metres final at the 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul on September 24, 1988
Photographs: Gary Hershorn/Reuters
In Seoul there were bigger cheat than Johnson
"Steroids could not replace talent, or training, or a well-planned competitive programme," Francis said. "They could not transform a plodder into a champion. But they had become an essential ingredient within a complex recipe."
In Seoul there were those who thought a bigger cheat than Johnson had gone unscathed.
Florence Griffith-Joyner, who died 10 years after the Games at the age of 38, had been a glamorous and successful sprinter in the years leading up to Seoul but had always finished among the minor medals.
In 1988, her physique noticeably altered and her voice deepened dramatically, both signs of possible steroid abuse. "She sounds like Louis Armstrong," exclaimed one journalist at her news conference in Seoul.
Of more enduring significance were the times she set in that unreal year. No woman, even 2000 Sydney Olympics triple champion Marion Jones who eventually confessed to years of systematic doping, has even come close to Griffith-Joyner's times of 10.49 and 21.34 seconds for the 100 and 200 metres respectively.
Griffith-Joyner announced her retirement in 1989, the year mandatory random drugs test were introduced. Eleven women's world records in Olympic events remain unchanged since the 1980s.
Image: Olympian Florence Griffith-Joyner
Photographs: Tony Duffy/Getty Image
Loss of credibility
Since Seoul, athletics, in general, and the sprints, in particular, have been battered by drugs scandals and the central sport of the Olympic Games has suffered increasingly in credibility as a result.
At the 2004 Athens Games, Justin Gatlin won the 100-200 double for the United States after serving a one-year ban following a positive test for amphetamines. The sentence had been halved when the world governing body accepted he had taken a prescribed medicine for attention deficit disorder.
Two years later he again tested positive, this time for excessive levels of the male sex hormone testosterone, and was banned for eight years, later reduced to four.
Gatlin worked with Trevor Graham, the coach who initiated a drugs scandal equivalent to the Johnson furore when he sent a syringe containing an undetectable steroid called THG to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency.
A test was quickly devised for the drug manufactured by the BALCO laboratory in California and a number of prominent athletes in track and field and baseball were implicated, including Britain's European 100 metres champion Dwain Chambers.
Jones, who won three gold medals in Sydney after announcing she wanted to go one better than Lewis and Jesse Owens by winning five titles, was the biggest victim of the BALCO scandal.
After years of denial she finally confessed she had been on a drugs regime similar to Johnson and was imprisoned for lying to federal investigators. Other sprinters banned as a result of the BALCO investigations were her former partner Tim Montgomery, who was the first man to run faster than Johnson's Seoul mark, and double world women's sprint champion Kelli White.
Image: Justin Gatlin of the United States
Photographs: Ian Walton/Getty Images
This year has been a bad one for the world of track and field
To its credit, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) has consistently uncovered drugs cheats over the 25 years since Seoul. It has also pointed out that other prominent Olympic sports, notably weightlifting and cycling, have been bedevilled by doping.
However, the positive tests keep coming and this year has been a bad one for the world of track and field.
Former 100 metres world-record holder Asafa Powell of Jamaica and former world champion Tyson Gay from the United States both missed last month's Moscow world championships after positive drugs tests which were revealed on the same day.
Jamaica, the Caribbean island which currently dominates world sprinting, was struck by another doping scandal when twice Olympic 200 metres gold medallist Veronica Campbell-Brown was suspended by her national federation after a positive test for a banned diuretic.
Officials said a dozen athletes had been sanctioned after positive drugs tests in the past five years.
Kenya, a country long regarded as a storehouse of natural long-distance talent, has also been implicated in doping with four positives in the space of 12 months. There has also been a rash of positive tests in Russia and Turkey.
Johnson, who is now an anti-doping campaigner after a lifetime of bad career choices, accepts his decision to take drugs ruined his life.
He said recently that athletes "are still testing positive week after week, still making the same mistakes I made. Athletes' perceptions need to change. The system needs to change."
Image: Asafa Powell of Jamaica
Photographs: Streeter Lecka/Getty Images