"I felt very good and did not notice any pain," the 30-year-old was quoted as saying in Barcelona sports daily Mundo Deportivo on Tuesday.
Edmilson pulled out of Brazil's World Cup squad after suffering a torn knee cartilage in his right knee when the team were preparing for the tournament in Switzerland at the end of May. He was operated on in Brazil on June 1.
The midfielder, who can also play in the centre of defence, joined Barca from Olympique Lyon in 2004 but missed much of his first season at the club after tearing the cruciate ligament in his right knee during a league match in October.
The Spanish and European champions returned to training on Monday with striker Eidur Gudjohnsen joining his new team mates for the first time since his 12 million-euro ($15 million) move from Chelsea.
"I know I've come to a great team where there are a lot of quality players," said the Icelandic international. "I know that I won't be playing every game, but I'm determined to win myself a place in the team."