In the Deccan region, the Kakatiya kingdom (AD 1083-1323) encompassed what is now known as Telangana.
After the Kakatiya kingdom was invaded by the Delhi Sultanate, the political autonomy of the region came to an end. In the course of the next two centuries, it became a province of theBahmani Sultanate between 1347 and 1518. When the hegemony of the Bahmani Sultanate ended, the Telangana region became part of the Golconda Sultanate (1518-1687).
With the collapse of Golconda in the face of the invasion of Aurangzeb, the region became a Mughal province. With the dissolution of the Mughal empire formed the Nizamate of Hyderabad.
This continued from 1720 till 1950 and during this period the region saw various shifts in status - first as a formal subsidiary to the Mughal emperor but actually to the Maratha empire (the first Nizam paid the Chauth tax to the Maratha court at Poona), later allied with the French and then with the English East India Company.
Eventually, the Nizam acknowledged the British sovereign as Empress of India and, thereby, his overlord.
With the India Independence Act of 1947, all the Indian princely states resumed their independence. Accordingly, from August 15, 1947 till September 17, 1948, Hyderabad was an independent state. The independence ended with Indian invasion and annexation. Later, the Nizam had been the Rajpramukh (an administrative title) of the Hyderabad state.
The Nizam officiated as Rajpramukh through the first general election of 1952 and finally gave up his nominal role in 1956 when Hyderabad state was dismembered and the Telangana region annexed to the Andhra state. Thereafter, Telangana witnessed two major movements for a separate statehood. Finally, on October 3, 2013, the Union Cabinet approved the formation of a Telangana state.
Source: A recently published book, The Fall and Rise of Telangana by Gautam Pingle, formerly Dean of Research and Consultancy, Administrative Staff College of India
Road to bifurcation:
1956 Telangana, comprising predominantly Telugu-speaking areas of erstwhile Hyderabad state, merged with the state of Andhra to form Andhra Pradesh (AP)
1969 'Jai Telangana' agitation launched for a separate Telangana state
1972 'Jai Andhra' movement launched for separate Andhra state
1997 Telangana issue resurfaces with BJP passing a resolution. A year later, the party's Lok Sabha poll slogan is 'One Vote, Two States'
2001 K Chandrasekhar Rao launches Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) for separate Telangana
Dec 9, 2009 Then Union Home Minister, P Chidambaram, announces the Centre's decision to initiate the process of a Telangana state
Dec 23, 2009 Following en masse resignation of Seemandhra MPs and MLAs, Centre puts the process on hold
Feb 3, 2010 Centre sets up five-member Srikrishna committee to look into the issue. Panel submits report in December, suggesting options
July 30, 2013 Congress Working Committee passes resolution recommending formation of Telangana state
Oct 3, 2013 Union Cabinet approves proposal to bifurcate AP
Dec 5, 2013 Union Cabinet approves draft AP Reorganisation Bill, 2013. Bill referred to AP legislature for its views
Jan 30, 2014 AP legislature, by voice vote, rejects the Bill
Feb 7, 2014 Union Cabinet clears Bill; Lok Sabha passes Bill on Feb 18
March 1, 2014 Bill receives assent of President
June 2, 2014 The 29th state of India is born