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 3 ApV$pbf, 2000
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`_pgpg `V$g : NyS>fpsu kprle_p AL$ QdL$pf

rd_ dpL$gp

sd QdL$pfpdp dp_p R>p? lz sp _\u dp_sp. R>sp ApR>pdp ApR>p iv$pdp `_pgpg `V$g_u ApmMpZ Ap`hu lpe sp `_pgpg `V$g AV$g NyS>fpsu kprle_p AL$ QdL$pf.

_l]sf ep fpS>\p__p Xy$Nf`yf rS>gp_p dpX$gu S>hp NpdX$pdp S>dgp A_ BX$f_p fpS>hu_u L$`p\u dpX$ ApW$ ^pfZ ky^u cZu iL$gp AL$ R>pL$fp A_ ep kprle dpV$_p cpfs_p khpQ `yfL$pf-op_`uW$ `yfL$pf dmh_pf gML$ `_pgpg `V$g.

cZhp_y ie _ fy epf Adv$phpv$ S>C kMphsdp dmgp `pW$`ysL$p hQu _pep A_ rdgdp _pL$fu gu^u. L$p`X$_u vy$L$p_ L$fu, _ Qpgu. qX$[V$gfudp, v$p$_p Npv$pddp, hpV$f hk_p L$pfMp_pdp, Adv$phpv$ Bg[VqkV$udp - Ad ss_u _pL$fuAp L$fu s_spX$ dl_s L$fhpdp hpQhp_pe hMs dmsp _lpsp ep gMhp_u sp hmu hps S> ep?

BX$fdp cZsp epf DdpiL$f šiu klpepeu lsp. epL$\u Mbf `X$u AV$g `_pgpg dybC DdpiL$f_ L$pNm gep. 1936_y A hj. Adv$phpv$dp Np^u_p dyM`v$ NyS>fpsu kprle `qfjv$_y Ar^hi_ cfpey sdp lpS>fu Ap`hp DdpiL$f Nep A_ dpcpC lpg `pk `_pgpg_ dep. kgpl Ap`u, "gMp `_pgpg.' `_pgpg L$l, "gMy sp Mfp, `Z kpfpMpV$p_u Mbf L$d `X$?' DdpiL$f kyv$fd_ cmpep.

DdpiL$f-kyv$fd b_ L$rh AV$g `_pgpg_ \ey L$ "gMp' L$y AV$g L$rhsp S> gMhp L$y lpe_? `Z Ad_p šX$L$Zp kpcmu kyv$fd k_ \sp _\u A `_pgpg `pdu Nep A_ AL$ qv$hk `|R>ey, "hpsp gMy?' kyv$fd "lp' `pX$u A_ bk, s v$u\u gML$ sfuL$ `_pgpg `pRy> hpmu_ šey _\u.

`_pgpg_u `lgu S> hpsp "iW$_u ipfv$p' ThfQv$ dOpZuA "awgR>pb'dp R>p`u. `Z A S>dp_pdp L$pC L$rs "\p_' dprkL$dp _ R>`pe ep ky^u dpZk "gML$' \ep _ NZpe Ahu [\rs lsu. \p__p su fpd_pfpeZ rh. `pW$L$_ `_pgpg dpL$ggu "L$Ly$' hpsp (S>_p `f\u hjp `R>u kyv$f qad b_gu) sdZ `pR>u dpL$gu `Z `R>u_u "kyMvy$:M_p kp\u' "\p_'dp NV$ L$fu AV$gy S> _l], `|R>ey, "bpf drl_pdp L$V$gu hpspAp Ap`u iL$p?'

1940dp NV$ \egu gOy_hg "hmpdZp'\u ThfQv$ dOpZu AV$gp sp ApL$jpep L$ "a|gR>pb'_p cV$ `ysL$ sfuL$ Ap`hp dpV$ Npdh__u AL$ _hgL$\p gMhp dpV$ sdZ `_pgpg_ lpicf ApdZ Apey. `_pgpg A ApdZ huL$pfu S> _hgL$\p gMu s "dmgp h.'

kyv$fd S>_ "gpbu _hrgL$p' L$lu lsu s "hmpdZp'dp S>d_p ky\pfZ_u Aby^ he_u v$uL$fu TdLy$_p g_h__u N|Q A L$\p_y Apfctbvy$ R> A_ d_pf dyMu_p dp_k `qfhs__u L$\p Adp fS|> \C R>, A_ L$\p_y fle `Z Adp\u rhsf R>. "hmpdZp'_p L$\pssy `psmp R>, `Z A q_rdѡ `_pgpg AL$ _p_L$Xy$ NpdXy$ L$rsdp MXy$ L$fu v$u^y R>. NyS>fps_p Bipr_ep M|Zp_p NpdX$p_u bpgu_p D`epN `Z Al] sdZ kamsp`|hL$ L$ep R>.

1941dp NV$ \egu "dmgp h' A gML$ `_pgpg_u L$pfqL$v$}dp S> _l], NyS>fpsu _hgL$\p rhL$pkdp `Z AL$ kudpsc S>hu b_u flu R>. "dmgp h'_u sph_p_ As dOpZuA L$y, "dp_huAp! Ap ^fsu_u kyhpk sp dpZp! dp_hu_y Apl] DOpXy$ dyL$pegy d_ sp r_lpmp!' A_ DdpiL$f šiu _p^ R> L$, "dmgp h_ gML$ `psp_p lep_y luf `pegy R>.'

NpdX$p_p sfyZ-sfyZu L$p_ A_ hu oprscv$_ gu^ dpV$p N|QhpX$pdp `X$ R>. S>dp$du_p dmpdp QL$X$pm_u `pgMudp L$p_-hu_u _S>f AL$ \C, h dep, `Z oprs_u AX$uMd v$uhpg hQ Aph R>. rd_u kgpl dp_u L$p_ Npd_p S> Npe ^|mp kp\ `fZph R> sp Mfp, `Z L$V$gpL$ rhjd kNpdp\u `kpf \ep `R>u hu NpX$u \C e R>.

A `R>u bph_ dm\u NpX$u hu_ L$p_ D`pX$u Nep sp Mfp, A_ epf A b rhepNu hp AL$bu_ dep `Z Mfp, `Z ep ky^udp sp b__p Apdp MqX$ef S>hu v$ipdp dyL$pC Nep lsp. ApMu L$\pdp ErdL$pe_p S>hu DL$V$sp A_ kO_sp k^pC R>. Ap`Zp _hgL$\p kprledp ApV$gu kh A_ kyfM fus L$X$pfpegu L$rsAp hpfhpf šhp dmsu _\u.

`_pgpg_u "dp_hu_u chpC' (1947) A NyS>fpsu kprle_u AL$ iL$hs} NZpe Ahu _hgL$\p R>. s_p A_yk^p_dp sdZ `pR>m\u "cpep_p cfy' (19`7) A_ "Odf hgpτ' cpN 1-f (1967) gMu R> Mfu `Z sdp sAp "dp_hu_u chpC'_u KQpC_ Apbu iep _\u.

"dp_hu_u chpC'dp `_pgpg_u b^u i[sAp_p - A_ depv$pAp_p `Z - `qfQe dmu fl R>. Al] dpV$p `pep `f gpL$_y `qfdpZ Ddfpsp L$\p L$pmy-fpSy>_p v$ehghgpV$_u _ flsp kdN dp_hh__u L$pC `pep_u hsy_u r_v$iL$ b_u fl R>. A_u _pqeL$p cg fpSy> lpe, "dp_hu_u chpC'_u Mfu _preL$p sp R> c|M-c|M ifuf_u `Z Mfu, `V$_u `Z Mfu A_ lep_u `Z Mfu.

fpSy>-L$pmy_p Ze A_ g_h__u ApV$uO|V$uAp_u Apk`pk MfMf sp AL$-b Npd_u _l], ApMpe v$i_p h__u blv$ L$\p sdZ Ecu L$fu R>. `_pgpg_u _S>f kdn L$pm_u Nrs R>. R>`r_ep vy$L$pm_p vy$:h__p Ap\pf ip dfZp gpL$kdpS>dp kyjys `X$p S> lsp s_ S>NpX$hp_p Adp sd_p e_ R>.

Nph^_fpd A_ dy_iu `R>u _hgL$\pL$pf sfuL$ uSy> dpVy$ _pd `_pgpg_y ghy `X$ Ahu sd_ S> rkr dmu sdp "dp_hu_u chpC'_p apmp _p_pk|_p _\u. d_ycpC `Qpmu "v$iL$' L$y R> sd : "dp_hu_u chpC AL$ kudpsc b_u R>. L$pfZ Nph^_fpd S> \p_ i$ L$ey A_ dy_iuA NyS>fps_p _p\dp S>_ buS> dyL$pd `lpQpX$y s_ cpC `_pgpg shu S> L$gpr$_ Ans fpMu_ uS> dyL$pd `lpQpX$y R>.'

"dp_hu_u chpC'_u L$\p ep AV$L$u lsu ep\u "cpep_p cfy' ApNm h^ R> A_ gpL$_peL$ b_gp L$pmy_u L$pdNufu_p Ap L$rsdp rhspf \pe R>. L$rs_ As pY$ he `lpQgp L$pmy-fpSy>_p rhepN R>hV$ R|>V$ R> A_ b__y Asf Ahe k_sp A_ ^esp_u gpNZu\u R>gL$pC EW$ R>. "cpep_p cfy'dp L$pmy Aklpe NpdS>_p_p cfy b_ R> sp AL$pL$u L$pmy_p h_dp cfy b_u_ hi R> fpSy>. Ad b_ fus iujL$ kp\L$ b_ R>.

"Odf hgpτ'dp pY$ v$`su gM fpSy>-L$pmy_u L$\p L$CL$ `pv$c|rddp NC R> A_ sfyZ he_p sp` A_ Q`p_u L$\p L$dp Aphu R>. `Z "dp_hu_u chpC'_p A_yk^p_dp gMpegu b L$rsApdp L$\p ApNm h^ R> `Z _hgL$\pL$pf sfuL$_u `_pgpg_u i[s ApNm h^su _\u.

1989dp Ahkp_ \ey ep ky^udp `_pgpg_ lp\ "dp_hu_u chpC'_u bfpbfu L$fu iL$ Ahu `Z L$pC L$rs gMpC _\u AV$g Ad S> dp_hy `X$ L$ L$pZ Z L$d, `psp_u khpd _hgL$\p gep `R>u _hgL$\pL$pf `_pgpg_u i[sAp Apkfhp gpNu lsu.

`pR>gp hjpdp gM__ `_pgpg ehkpe sfuL$ A`_phgy AV$gy S> _l], `psp_u L$pi_ k\p kp^_p L$pi_ `Z i$ L$fgu AV$g sdZ gMgu _hgL$\pAp_u Ly$g kep sp OZu dpV$u R>. sdp_u L$V$guL$ _hgL$\p R> : AS>hpmu fps Adpk_u, Ad b bl_p, AgX$ R>pL$fu, Ap^u ApjpY$_u, AL$ A_pMu us, L$fprmep_y my, NgpgtkN, S>Z hu ey, spN, _Nv$_pfpeZ, _\u `fep; _\u Ly$hpfp, _hy gplu, _p R|>V$L$, aL$ufp, cufy kp\u, d_Mphspf, dfL$V$gpg, duZ dpV$u_p dp_hu, eph_, kyfrc. Ap D`fps fpdpeZ, dlpcpfs A_ `yfpZp s\p v$sL$\pAp `f Ap^pqfs L$rsAp `Z `_pgpg dpV$u kepdp gMu R>.

_hgL$\p D`fps `_pgpg V|$L$u hpsp, _pV$L$, ApdL$\p, kdfZp, bpmkprle A_ qL$ipfkprle hNf `Z gep R>.

NpdXy$ A `_pgpg_u i[s `Z R> A_ kudp `Z R> A hps ThfQv$ dOpZu OZu hlgu `pdu Nep lsp A_ "dmgp h'_u sph_pdp sdZ `_pgpg_ Qsep `Z lsp, R>L$ 1941dp : "S>V$gy `ps Zsp lpe sV$gp S>Ns_u Av$f fd_pf gML$_ A S>Ns L$v$u v$Np v$i _l]. Zusp S>Ns_u blpf AL$ X$Ngy `Z v$u^ gML$ `psp_p `N g`ep S> kdS>hp. `_pgpg AL$ kpL$X$u vy$r_ep_u kudp blpf S>C iL$sp _\u Ahp Apn` \sp d kpcep R>, R>sp `_pgpg_u hr `psp_p Npd šNu`fp L$ D^qX$ep_u blpf, `psp_p S>ep L$p_ L$ hu_ hNmp dgu AL$ hpf dybC L$ L$gL$p_u L$pCL$ kyhpmu, QL$QqL$s, DS>rmeps _ Adufu kr$_p Ze ApgMhp gpcpC R> Ahy S> qv$_ d šegy s qv$_, s S> V$pZ _ `m d hNf r`R>p_ `Z ^$ b_u_ QudV$u MZgu L$, cpC! sy S> `pZu_y dpR>gy R> sdp S> flS>, _l]sf sy d|Ap `X$p R>! spfy spfp`τ fpMS>.'

_l] TpTp Aepk, _l] rhipm hpQ_ (AN-kL$s_y sp gNcN _l]), _l] gpbp rhv$ihpkp, `Z L$hm `psp`Zp_u d|X$u_ Ap^pf gM_pf `_pgpg, cg ApNmu_ hY$ NZpe AV$gu S> _hgL$\pApdp Dd L$gpL$rs rk L$fu iep A_ DdpiL$f šiu `R>u cpfsue op_`uW$ `yfL$pf (1985) dmh_pfp bu NyS>fpsu gML$ b_u fp. AV$g 1989_p Arg_u R>$u spfuM Adv$phpv$dp sd_y Ahkp_ \ey epf ApW$ Qp`X$u cZgp `_pgpg NyS>fpsu kprlekr$_p L$pedu ke b_u Q|ep lsp.

sd_u gM_ L$pfrL$v$}_p kudpsc kdu "dmgp h' _hgL$\p_p b dye `pp-L$p_ A_ hu_p lep_u d\pdZ gpL$bpgudp sdZ kQpV$ fus ApgMu R>. s_p AL$ Ai :

hu Z g]`gpdp bW$u lpe Ad r_fps\u bW$u lsu. Y$]QZ afsp fpMgp lp\_p ApNmp AL$dL$_ cfhgp lsp. kpmy_p R>X$p AX$^ dp\ S>C Ecp lsp. L$p_dp gV$L$sp kp_p_p gprmep_p $`fu Tpgp A_u dyMpL$rs_ L$pC A_fy $` A`sp lsp. ApMpdp sfhfsu dsu_p `X$R>pep dyM D`f `\fpC fp lsp. AL$dL$ kpd šC_ ApMp hpV$ hpsp L$ep `R>u huA lku_ `|R>ey : "s v$__u `W$ ApS>e c|gp `X$p R>p L$ iy?'

gpbp `N L$fu S>dZp lp\_p V$L$p gsp L$p_A L$y : "c|gp `X$p Ry> L$ `R>u ^pe fs Apep Ry> A sp lze bfpbf _\u Zsp ! `Z-' L$lu hu kpd v$v$cfu _S>f _pMu, lkhp e_ L$fsp bpep : "Ap dpYy$ šhp Apep Ry>, AV$gy sp Qp$k R>.'

"Ap sp W$uL$ R> L$ v$_ v$__p fsp R> AV$g dpYy$ šhp v$pX$u Aphp R>p, `Z L$pg lz L$pL$ ApO_p Npd S>Ci epf iy L$fip?'

lp\dp fpMgp gpL$X$p\u S>du_ `f guV$p v$pfsp L$p_ L$CL$ rhQpfdp `X$p lpe Ad klS> hpf `R>u cpf pk gsp bpep :

"AV$g S> sp lz Apep Ry>.'

"AV$g lz hNm J A `lgp ^fpC_ dpYy šC ghp L$ `R>u-' sfs S> hpe `gV$phu v$u^y : "QpMy bpgp sp L$iye kde _?'

"QpMy L$lhp S> sp Apep Ry>. `Z A `lgp sy hQ_ Ap` sp L$lz.'

L$p_ kpd dpfL$Zu ApM šsp huA `|R>ey : "ip_y?'

"lz L$lz A L$b|g L$fhp_y.' L$p_ _uQu _S>f bpgsp lsp. "hQ_ _\u Apey spe Aepf ky^u L$iy _pL$b|g sp _\u L$ey. AV$gp rhpke _\u sd_?'

"rhpk _ lps sp ApV$gp NpD Aphse Mfp?... `Z Ap sp sy hQ_ Ap` sp dpfp h_ ^X$ph (tlds) fl!'

"_ hQ_ Ap`u_e š lz afu S>Ci sp sd d_ iy L$fhp_p lsp?' L$lu hu lku `X$u.

L$p_A `N V|$L$p L$ep. V$V$pf \C_ ApOps dpV$ hu_ sepf _ L$fsp lpe sd L$y : "Ap L$pC lku L$pY$hp S>hu hps _\u, hu!'

"`Z epf S> lpe s L$lu _pMp _? hQ_ Ap`ui L$ _rl Ap`y spe sd L$lip AV$g L$ep hNf L$C R|>V$L$p R>?' L$lsu hu_u k|fs sp `lgp_p S>hu S> lkdyMu lsu, `Z ApMpdp S>fp Hsfu h^u lsu.

Npmu R>pX$hp_u sepfu L$fsp R>gu QshZu S> Ap`sp lpe Ad hmu L$p_A L$y : "šS> lp `pR>m\u afu _ S>su! lSy>e sy _p L$lsu lpe sp f'hp v$J!'

L$p__u Ap hpsQus v$frdep_ hu S>hu Apipcfu resdpA iu iu ^pfZpAp _rl bp^u lpe! "`psp_ sX$hp S> Apep gpN R>' sp hmu, "L$ `R>u gC_ `fv$i _pku S>hp_y fpey li? L$pC bu Npbfu dpNZu sp _rl L$f _?'

`fsy Aphu Aphu ^pfZpAp\u \X$L$pfp dpfu flgy hu_y ley, L$p__p R>gp iv$p A_ A_u TpMu `X$u Negu k|fs šsp ^udy `X$u Ney. fuk kp\ bpgu : "L$lsp lp sp L$lu _pMp _ `pep _ `pep_u sd_ _ d_-be_ Mbf sp `X$i?'

"lz sp spfy dpNy gC_ Apep Ry>.' L$lu ApMp_ cpe Mpsfsu fpMu S>hpb dpV$ L$p_A L$p_ dpX$p.

hu_p h Z lW$p bW$p lpe Ad, "`psp_y dpNy `ps s L$pC L$v$u L$fsy li?' L$lu Tuτ Tuτ dgL$pC flu.

L$p__p dp_u cpNm b^ L$fu v$hp hu_y Ap hpe S> bk lsy. hu_u rkL$g sfa šey lps sp`Z L$v$pQ _ bpgu iL$s : "dpfy `psp_y dpNy gC_ _\u Apep `Z lz sp... dpfp Npdhpmp ^|qmep Npe_y dpNy gC_ Apep Ry>!'

L$p_A bpgu sp _pey `Z epf `R>u A _ sp KQu ApM L$fu iep L$ _ bpggp iv$p `pR>p Nmu iep, "epf sp ^|rmep dpV$ hX$kpm Apep R>p!' Aphy L$CL$ kcmpey `Z A hu S> bpg R> A_u A_ `|fsu Mpsfu _ lsu. L$v$pQ A `ps bpep lpe Ahp `Z A_ `pR>m\u hld `X$p. L$p_A KQ šey. "_p _p hu! d bpghpdp c|g L$fu. A b^u hps MpV$u R>.' Apd L$lhp AZ lpW$ DOpX$hp e_ L$ep `fsy epf `lgp sp AL$ lp\_p V$L$p gC K^p `N _pMu_ bW$gu huA, bu lp\\u Opk spX$sp
`|R>ey : "dpfp dpbp`_ `|R>ey R>?'

L$p_dp hmu `pR>u tlds Aphu. "^|rmep_u dp L$'sp'sp L$ X$pkp_u sp df R> `Z spfy _ spfp Apfdp_ dp_y S>fp L$d_ S>hy R>!'

^ud\u `Z KX$p pk gsp hu bpgu : "dpfy L$d_ R> Ahy Zsp lsp spe... cgu dpNy gC_ Aphhp_u sd tlds L$fu!'

L$p_A Qp`g|kucey lksp L$y : "`Z sy _p _rl `pX$ A_u sp d_ Mpsfu S> _! AV$g S> sp Ap L$pd dp\ gu^y, _rl sp L$v$u-'

"kpfy L$ey S> L$ey A!' Ap iv$p cNp S> huA r_:pk _pMu gu^p, bpgu: "`Z Ap_y lh L$fhp_y R> L$hu fus? `|R>hp S>ip spe- dpfp bp`p dp_i `Z dpfu dp sp _\u S> dp_hp_u.' lSy>e A ApXy$ S> šC flu lsu.

L$p_A hu kpd spL$sp L$y : "A sp b^u lh spfp lp\_u S> hps R>.' A_ hu_ Q|` šC Ddey : "sy L$' sp Ad bQpf S>Z ^_sfk_u kdukpS> Aphu_ _ `gp dlzX$p ApNm Ecp fluA.'

"cg!' L$lu hu Q|` flu.

L$p_A Ap\u h^pf iy L$lhp_y lsy! S> L$pC L$y lsy A S> AV$gy b^y h^pf `X$sy lsy L$ A_ `psp_ `Z `psp_u s L$pC dlp A` gpNsu lsu. `lgp_p d, epN L$ Npfh; rhfl, hv$_p L$ hfpN Adp_y L$C L$lsp L$C S> _lpsy fy! hu ApNm h^pf hpf bkhp_y `Z A_ cpf gpNhp dpX$y. A_p d_dp \sy lsy : "lSy>e L$pL$ L$fsp Ap _p `pX$ R>?' A_ `|R>ey : "iy epf, ip rhQpf L$ep?'

"rhQpf L$fhp S>hy lh R>e iy?' L$lsp hu V$V$pf \C A_ L$p_ kpd šsp Z L$p__y NpMpey _ NpMsu lpe Ad bpgu : "^_sfk_u kdukpS> `gp dpfNhpmp dlzX$p ApNm dpf Aphhp_y.'

L$p__, "š spfy d_ vy$Mpsy lpe sp dfhp v$ Ap hps_' Apd L$lhy lsy. `Z hu_u k|fs šC_ A_p\u L$iy S> _ bpgpey. Apd L$lhy A lh dp\y L$pep `R>u QpV$pX$hp S>hy `Z gpNsy lsy. R>spe š bkhp dey lps sp L$CL$ L$ls. `Z AV$gpdp huA bpSy>dp `X$gp b^ A_ v$psfXy$ `psp `pk spep.

"lz J epf,' L$lu L$p_ `Z Ecp \ep.

b^_u kfp_ cNu L$fsu hu bpgu : "Aphš.'

"^_sfk _$u _ epf?' L$p_A hmu `|R>ey.

L$p_ sfa šsu hu_u _S>f Z L$lsu _ lpe, "Ap dpZk_ lSy>e rhpk _\u `X$sp?' A_ bpgu : "_$u, _ sdpe b ^_sfkp lpe sp `lgu,' L$lu Ecu \C
bpgu : "kdukpS>\u dpX$u_ dlzX$p ApNm lz bkui. sdpf Aphhy lpe epf Aphš, Ap.' L$lu `uW$ afhu NC. šsšspdp dL$pCdp gp` \C NC. $

ANpD_p gMp

Ap gM Ap`_ L$hp gpep?


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