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6 S|>_, 2002
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  lpd`S> | h^y kdpQpfp | dpshv$_p

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 Ae NyS>fpsu hbkpBV$
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DdpiL$f šiu

bp_y _pd _dv$p, `Z kpkf kp Ad_ _hg L$l. _hgbpC _pd\u S> AX$piu`X$piu, kp NpdgpL$ Ad_ R>L$ ky^u bpgphsp. r`sp_p bu hpf_p `_u lsp s\u s _hg sfuL$ ApmMpsp A sp Ad_ kp cpCbl_p_ `Z Mbf `X$u lpe sp dpX$\u.

1932. tkl\ hfk. bp _priL$ebL$_u pA S>hp dybC Aphgp. Ahpdp lz hukp`yf S>gdp\u R|>V$gp. bp _ lz `pR>p hmsp, bp_u Mpk BR>p\u, hX$pv$fp Esep. kyfkpNf `pk AL$ ^prdL$ S>Npdp Nep. l L$pC A hMs_p fX$pMX$p kp^yS>_ lsp sdZ "Aph, cpZu' L$lu_ DdmL$p\u hpNs L$ey. bpA c|sX$u Tp`p ApNm gC S>C d_ g__u Qpfu_u S>Np `Z bsphu. uk-AL$uk hfk `R>u A hX$pv$f Nep lsp.

g_ hMs Ddf dpX$ ArNepf-bpf_u li. `Z bp_p qL$ipfph\p_p hfkp, A, Ad_u `pk\u fs fs rhNsp Zu R> s šsp, AL$ AgpqL$L$ qL$gpgL$pm lsp.

Ad_p r`sp_p dpdp kp^y \egp. bpf hfk cpefpdp flu s`ep L$fgu. R>sp \ep `R>u Ad_y AL$ dye d\L$ hX$pv$fp. cpZS> cpCiL$f (bp_p r`sp) Ad_u kp\ fl A_ fkpC`pZudp dv$v$ L$f. dX$mu_ Qfpsfdp afhp_y rhij. `V$gpv$ hufkv$ cpv$fZ bpfkv$ b^p Npd_u hpsp d_ `f R>`pC Negu s bp L$f, Z S>_dpfp ep Npep _ lpe.

hqfW$ kp^yA g__u _ hX$pv$f sX$phu A_ "_dv$p'_ "_hg' L$fu. Ad R>pL$fpAp cZsfdp ApNm hep epf L$pCL$pC_ dpA hpeL$p kpcmhp dmsu L$ `gp s`hu kp^yS>__p Apiuhpv$\u rhp k_ \C R>.

bpA _h bpmL$p_ S>d Apep. lz uSy> bpmL$. dpfy AL$ `ye dfZ s Ap^X$ he_p dphsf_y R>. `N Y$]QZ\u D`f_u bpSy> hpmp _uL$mgp. Qp`pX$ (Apkfu)dp MpV$gp `f lz KOu Negp. L$CL$ W$Xy$ W$Xy$ gpNsp Nu Nep. r`sp v$hp gNpX$sp lsp. bp qv$hg_y L$pqX$ey ^fu_ Ecp lsp. A AS>hpmpdp dpsd|rs-r`sd|rs_y \sy v$i_ ApMp pfp Asfdp Esfu Ney. S>Ns: r`sfp hv$.

bp KQp, NpfhZp. AL$ `N klS>, klS> S> KQL$u_ d|L$sp lpe- Mpk L$fu_ hph\pdp- Ad cpksy. A hMs_p Adpfu bpSy>_p Qpg dpZ lp\uv$ps_p-L$pQgu_p Q|X$gp L$pX$p D`f S> _l], L$pZu D`f `Z `lfgp lpe. bp^p AL$hqX$ep. dpfp `_u dL$dp L$l, DdpiL$f_ dp\ kpX$u_p R>X$p fpep lpe sp bfpbf bp šhp dm.

apCAp R>`r_epdp dfu Negu AV$g cpZrS>ep Adpf ep ER>ep. QpfL$ dpCg `f_p Npd `fZphgp, Aes dpm `Z W$kpv$pf, AL$dp hsp apC L$_u (L$Zu) bpdZp Aph epf Of_u fp_L$ bv$gpC e. v$pv$u NNpdp Nep, `Z bpdZp_y Of bp_y bey Ad _l] L$lhpe. _u `L$X$ r`sp ep ep ky^u Ap Of `f AdyL$ Ai flu. Ad Ad_ r`sp_p _p_p cpC gMsp.

r`sp cZgp, _p_u Nufp_p L$pfcpfu, `pQdp `yR>psp ApNhp_. `Z kp\ hps L$f epf Ad_p h_ Mygpkp \pe. r_Zep ghpe sdp cpN cS>h. bp sp AL$ L$pfpZ. S>hy dpm dpZk d šey _\u. `Z bp_ "_hgu' L$lu_ L$pC _Ne e[s kp\ hssp lpe sd hs. _M S>hX$u Ap _hu hlz iy kdS>?- A s_u d_dp NpW$ b^pC NC li. _hpC_u hps R> L$ bp_ L$pC `^pcph _ lsp. A_ L$pd ep ApRy> lsy? A_ bpmL$p_p DR>f.

lz kdS>Zp \ep epf AL$ `R>u AL$ apC_p bpmL$p `fZu L$fu `ps`psp_y Of S>dphu Q|ep lsp, R>sp dpfu epv$v$psdp S> A kde_y rQ R> sdp bp_u fpS>_u L$pdNufu_p epg ApS> `Z klS> ^yhu v$ R>.

Ad Qpf _p_p R>pL$fpAp. fX$uA `Z Mfp. bp v$m, fp^, MhX$ph. Y$pf_u EW$hW$. Msf_y L$pd-_]v$pdZ, L$p`Zu hNf L$fhp_y. Qpf_p cpfp gphhp. riepmp Esfsp bmsZ_u cpfuAp Xy$Nf\u gC Aphhu. kpfpdpW$p kN Apk`pk_p Npd S>hy. dldp_p_u AhfS>hf `Z kpfu. dv$v$_ui L$pC S> _l].

kp\u |$f hsy sp A lsu L$ Ad kp _pluA Of, _plhp_y `pZu `Z bpA hphL|$h\u cfu gphhp_y. Adpfy Of Xy$Nf-smV$uA KQpZdp. ^uf ^uf X$Ngp cfsu dp\ `pZu_y bXy$ D`pX$u QX$su bp_y rQ _S>f ApNm\u Mksy _\u.

dpV$p \ep AV$g Ad Ahpf_hpf Npdkuddp L|$hpAp `f S>C _plhp^php_y fpMsp. Aepf sp Npddp huS>mu Aphu NC R> A_ Npd ApMp dpV$_u `pZu_u V$pL$u Adpfp Of_u `R>us `pk KQpZdp QZgu R>.

dpV$p cpC fpdiL$f CX$f AN ipmpdp Aepk A\ Nep AV$g lz hX$p bep. d hX$`Z AS>dphhp dpX$y. khpf hpR>fX$p R>pX$hp, blpf ApNZpdp bp^hp, L$Qfp L$pY$hp, L$mephpkZ dpS>hp, MpZ _uQ R>pZp cfu Qsphhp, Y$pf ApY$hp_p (Qpfhp_p) kde \pe epf Ad_ R>pX$hp, R>pZ cNy L$fu R>pZp \p`hp, fkpC AN dv$v$$` \hy- Aphp TuZp TuZp L$pdp L$fsp \ep.

cpCAp_u v$MfM fpMy. kpS> _d A^pfy \hp Aph. bp_ Aphsp dpXy$ \ey lpe. Ad cpXy Qp`pX$_u `X$gu `f QX$u fpNX$p spZu AL$kp\ bpguA : "A bp! AphS> lp!' A_ d|mudpiu_p Of_p hmpL$ dp\ cpfp lpe _ bp kpd\u V$lzL$p L$f : "Ap-Aphu-B-C!''

d_ l A_L$ kNp epv$ R> S>dp bp L$pd L$fsu lpe _ lz L$CL$ dv$v$ L$fhp L$fsp A\hp Ad _ Ad S> Apk`pk afsp s_u kp\ hpsp L$ep L$fsp lpJ.

bp_ `V$ `lgu v$uL$fu Ahsfu s kpS> Npd ApMpdp Dgpk_u glfu afu hmu s_y dfZ dpfp d_dp Ahy _ Ahy spSy> R>. Qpf cpC_u MpV$_u bl__y _pd b^pA lf L$ey "šCsu'. AL$ v$uL$fu_p S>_ddp ApMp kd|l DdmL$pcf Ap_v$ dpZ A_p Ap A_ych dpfp bpmd_ dpV$ fpdpQL$pfu lsp. Ap kN khp L$fhp_u d_ \pX$u \pX$u sL$ dmu. `R>u bu bl_ Ad_ dmu. NpdgpL$ A_ h^phu A_ _pd `pX$y "ipCsu' (ipcsu-kplsu).

dpf lh CX$f cZhp S>hp_y Apey. bp\u lh ^ud ^ud R|>V$hp_y Apey. fAp `|fu \pe AV$g Ad _uL$muA. b`pf V$pZ _v$uL$pW$ cp\y MpguA sp bp_u kfrkep sg_y `psy afhgu v$idu D`f kp_u _S>f lpe. bp_u hp_Nudp kp cpN `X$ph.

fApdp Of AphuA sp `X$su fps ApNZpdp dp\pdp ApNmp afhu guMp ip^sp bp R>ppge_p cpS>__u ANhX$p Zu g A_ hL$i_dp Of A b^u EZ`p_p MN hpm.

bp_p g_h__p `QukL$ hfk AL$^pfp kpfp Nep. `Z `R>u Ly$Vy$b D`f L$C _ L$C dyL$guAp Aphsu flu.

1930dp lz kepNl_u gX$sdp šX$pep s `R>u dpf r_rdѡ bp_ qaL$f fp L$f Ahy \ey. r`sp Adv$phpv$ Aphu b qv$hk kp\ flu AL$ S> hpe bpep : spf gX$pCdp šX$phy S> R>?

d lp L$lu AV$g L$l : cg, `Z dpfu kp\ Of Aph, spfu bp_ dmu g. d v$lis bsphu L$ sp sp dpf gX$sdp šX$php_y _ b_. L$l, s_y lz šCi. Ad kpS> Npd `lpep. khpf bp-bp`y dpV$f `f d|L$hp Apep A_ lp\dp hpkMQ_p `kp d|ep.

Adpfy gpL$ kpfy `Z gpL$ AV$g gpL$. L$pC `prZepfu L|$h\u `pZu cfu_ Aph _ bp_ iyc kdpQpf Ap` : Agu _hgu, spfp R>pfp Av$phpv$_ W$kZ kfL$pf NpmuAp R>pX$u Adp dfu ep. ldZp `prZepfp_p L|$hp `f hpV$dpfNy S>sp'sp BZ L$y.

bp_ `rs S>W$pgpg L$dm_u spgud. `Z dp_y v$e. X$Nu e. ^ud ^ud bp_p ifuf `f Akf \C. Qpdpkpdp r`sp hufdNpd R>phZu `f Apep A_ bp_p kdpQpf Apep. lz Ad_u kp\ Nep _l]. `Z `R>u "bp' L$fu_ AL$ gpbp L$pNm gep. `R>u\u Zgy L$ Ap L$pgpOgp ` kpcmu_ bp_ L$CL$ L$m hmu. (r`spA dpfp AL$ rinL$ ipmpdp `funp ghp Apep li sd_ L$pNm hQphgp, sdZ `pR>m\u d_ L$lgy, spfy NyS>fpsu kpfy.)

S>gdp Ahpdp AL$ fQ_p L$fgu : "dpf AL$ v$u S>C DOX$phhp dpfu T|`X$u L$fp pf... bpm Apep, bp, pf DOpX$.'

kepNldp `X$p A_y dpfp `|fsy AL$ kpfy `qfZpd A Apey NZu iL$pe L$ 1933 A_ 1934_p b riepmp r`sp_u Ncuf dpv$Nu_p Nep sdp lz Ad_p MpV$gp `pk lpS>f flu iy|jpdp bp_u kp\ šX$pep. cpCAp cZsfdp\u Aphu iL$ Ad _ lsy. lz `Z, dpfy cZsf Qpgy lps sp, ApMp ApV$gp kde Al] Aphu iep _ lps.

r`sp bep _l]. 1934dp `Qph__u Jdf Ad_y Ahkp_ \ey. R>pL$fpAp_u L$p^ gC S>hpsp šC Npd Ad_u ^esp dpZu. kpS> dip_\u `pR>p Apep epf Of_p R>p`fp `f Ecfpsp KX$p Ofp AhpS> `lgp sp lz ApmMu _ iep. bp_p Ap AhpS>! lz Ad_u `pk S>C_ bW$p. Ad_ kp_ tlds Ap`sp A L$CL$ h\ bep.

bp_y v$p`eh_ suk hfk Qpey, s `R>u suk hfk A ep. Ap v$frdep_ Apkdp_u (Cfv$u^u) Apasp AL$ `R>u AL$ Esfsu flu.

r`sp_u `pR>m Qpf hfk lqf`yfp L$pNkdp\u sph gC `pR>p afgp fpdycpCA b qv$hk_u dpv$Nudp v$l R>pX$p. \pX$p hfkp `R>u, dybCdp bu.A._u `funp `pk L$fu, Of `pR>p afgp _p_p cpC Qy_ucpCA nefpN E\gp Mpsp L$pQu Ddf rhv$pe gu^u. 1942_p ApNV$ 9du_u gX$s i$ \C s_p AL$ qv$hk `|h, nefpNdp akpegp S>ipv$pbl__y Adv$phpv$dp Adpf ep dey \ey. bpmL$ sp \pX$p qv$hk `lgp NyS>fu Negp. Adpfp L$pW$p S> Z dey_p _ lpe.

kšNphips bp_ kss Npddp S> flhp_y \ey. Np^u_p dey `R>u 1949dp hL$f Apqv$ iprsQplL$p_u iprsr_L$s_dp rhiprs `qfjv$ cfpC s kN A \p__p v$i_ L$fhp_y d rhQpey. A r_rdѡ Df A_ `|h cpfs_p hpk_u sepf L$fu. bp_ A_ dpdu_ kp\ gu^p. lfpf-juL$i\u cyh_f-S>N_p\`yfu ky^u aep sdp bp_u TuZu TuZu hsy_y AhgpL$_ L$fhp_u A_ Ap_v$ ghp_u hr_p M|b `qfQe \ep.

bp_ lkhp šCA. bL$ Ofdp uhN dpV$ lkhy A AL$ hpcprhL$ hsy. S> L$pC `f`f lpgp MMX$p lpe, KQ kpv$ bpgpey lpe, b^y S> A lkhpdp sZpC e. epfL$ V$uL$pqV$`Zu `Z lkhpdp \C e. "ip_u sfp? cpC sp L$iy `pm _l], b^pdp dp_ _l]!' dpfp fk v$h-v$huAp L$fsp s s \m_u bu rhri$spApdp h^y lpe. bp _cphu g A_ bu hsyApdp `Z fk gsp fl. Adpfy cpCAp_y hgZ hfsu AL$ hpf lksp lksp "dpfu `pR>m sd L$pfS> L$fhp_p _\u A τ Ry>' Ad L$lu AdZ ApNm\u S> Adpfp rhQpfp_ A_ydpv$_ Ap`u v$u^y lsy.

bp_ gpL$L$\pAp-Nusp L$W$\. Adpfu sfa Nusp ky`f Z_pf_ "NpZp_y TpX$' L$l. A L$pqV$_p s lsp. hsy_p dd D`f Ad_u _S>f lpe.

AL$ hpf L$p[scpCA dpfy Nus Ad_ kcmpey : "...R|>`u R|>`u huS> L$f hpsX$u : `|rZdp_ L$lš L$ L$pL$ v$u ApV$gu AS>hpm fpsX$u.' kpcmu_ bp bpep, Ap sp dlZy R>. cpCA L$y, Nus_y d\pmy dlτ S> fpMgy R>.

bp dpZkc|ep, hpsX$pp, kdpS>_u-vy$r_ep_u hpsdp cpf L$psyL$ ^fph. L$pC_ epe L$fhp _ bku e, `Z kdS>hp L$f b^y S>. riMpdZ Ap`hp _ bk, `Z d\u kpdp dpZk_y kpcm. OZp_p hps_p rhkpdp b_u fp.

Adpfp cpZS> NyS>fpsu ipmp_p dye rinL$ (`R>u\u r_h) A_ychu lspm lgpv$cpC du S>hp. Ad_ bp_y ek_. AL$ hpf A bp `pk Apep A_ lku `X$p : _hgbp, Of\u l]X$hp dpX$p. Al] Apep epf \ey, Af L$pC L$pd _\u _ L$d Apep Ry>! lgpv$cpC dpV$f Qpfphgu ApNm NpdfqX$ep kpcm- Mpk sp Qu__u gX$pC hMs- A_ bp Ad_u `pk\u fS>fS> rhNs dmhu g. `R>u buS> L$pC kN Ad_p\u bpghpdp L$pC ApL$X$p_p L$ buš afapf \pe sp bp fpL$ : Aep, bpdX$u gpdp Ap`Zp ApW$kp _l], R>kp OhpZp. bp_u drs L$peyV$f S>hu. S> S> NlZ L$ey lpe s b^y ldi Ad_u khpdp lpS>f. h__p fk S> Ahp DL$V$.

bpA Ad_ h_ kp\ h__p fk `Z L$CL$ Apep. dpsp_y F>Z A_L$rh^ lpe R>. dpsp_y F>Z L$pZ Q|L$hu iey R>? Mfy šsp A F>Z _\u. F>Z NZu_ A_p $r`ep-`kpdp rlkpb dpX$hpdp Aph A_ S>Ns_u dpspAp_p F>Z Q|L$hhp_p he cNhp_ lhpgp g sp cNhp__y `Z v$hpmy _uL$m.

bp_u khp lz L$fu iep Ad L$lu _ iLy$. AsOX$u L$CL$ kQhpC. \pX$p kde `lgp S> d Ly$g`rs_u S>hpbv$pfu huL$pfu lsu. S|>_pNY$dp L$pC L$pe$ddp lsp _ bp_u dpv$Nu_p kdpQpf dep. Npd `lpQu bp_ Adv$phpv$ gC Apep. srbes h^y g\X$u. hQ kpfy gpN.

lz L$lz, bp, kpfy \C S>i. bp KX$pZdp\u šC fl. bpgu iL$sp _ lsp, dp\y-dpYy$ lgphu iL$sp _ lsp. bp_y kh L$pC Ad_p cphp֮ AhpS>dp lsy- A_ Aes ddspmy `Z S>fuL$ KX$ Esfgu- Z klS> rhQpfdp _ lpe Ahu- r$dp. Aepf Ad_u r$dp- ifuf lh V$L$i _l] A sp lsy S>, kp\ lsu kp_ rQf rhv$pe-Aprij. Ly$Vy$b\u h]V$mpC AdZ v$l R>pX$p.

Adkp AL$ qv$hk bpv$ Npd Nep. kp cNp \ep Adp _p_p rhp\}ApA klS> fZp\u Npey : "dNg dqv$f Mpgp!' sfyZhe_p Afdp_ "bpm Apep, bp! pf DOpX$!' - A lh Afdp_ $` `Z Nphp_p _ fp!

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