July 23, 2008
No one likes to be told that their behaviour towards others is irrational, irresponsible, or unhealthy. In fact, when confronted with evidence that their behaviour is hurtful to others, most people start being defensive.
A recent research has shown that just a few minutes of writing about an important value can reduce this kind defensiveness.
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about themselves and this makes them less defensive.
Now, a latest research has challenged this finding by suggesting that writing about important values doesn't reduce defensiveness by boosting the self; instead, it enables people to transcend the self by focusing on people or things they care about beyond themselves.
On the basis of two experiments, Jennifer Crocker and Yu Niiya from the University of Michigan and Dominik Mischkowski from the University of Konstanz found that writing about important values makes people feel loving and connected, and that these other-directed feelings account for reduced defensiveness.
In the first study, the researchers asked participants to rank six values: social life, religion/ morality, science, business, arts, and government. One group later wrote for 10 minutes about why their most important value was important to them, while the control group wrote for 10 minutes about how their least important value might be important to others.
Afterwards, they rated how much writing the essay made them feel love, empathy or other emotions.
In the second study, participants were smokers and non-smokers. Like the first study, participants wrote about an important or unimportant value.
This time, however, they next read a fake article claiming that smoking increases the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms, a bulge in the main artery of the heart, and the quality of the research described in the article.
The results for both studies were very strong. In both studies, those who wrote about an important value felt more loving and
connected after writing the essays than those who wrote about an unimportant value.
And specifically in the second study, writing about an important value made smokers less defensive -- they were more accepting of the article's claim that smoking harms health if they wrote about an important value instead of an unimportant value.
"These studies raise the prospect that reminding people what they love or care about may enable them to transcend the self and may foster learning under difficult circumstances," the researchers said in the July issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
The researchers speculate that the love and connection people feel after writing about important values could affect hormones related to care giving, such as oxytocin.
Because oxytocin increases trust, it might account for reduced defensiveness in people who take a few minutes to reflect on their important values.