Parthiv Patel was unlucky to miss out despite a fine showing in the Test series against England as the selectors preferred to recall Wriddhiman Saha, while also handing a comeback to Tamil Nadu opener Abhinav Mukund.
Left-hander Mukund returned to the Indian Test team after a long wait of nearly five years, following his impressive showing in domestic cricket.
The selectors named a 16-member team for the one-off Test match against Bangladesh Test to be played in Hyderabad from February 9.
Interestingly, the selection committee meeting was delayed by more than six hours after the Supreme Court-appointed Committee of Administrators (COA) barred joint secretary Amitabh Chaudhary from convening it.
After numerous phone calls and emails, the Board of Control for Cricket in India's CEO Rahul Johri finally convened the meeting via videoconferencing with captain Virat Kohli joining in from Bangalore via the same method.
Parthiv came in as the replacement after Saha was ruled out with injury for the last three matches of the five-Test series against England. The Gujarat left-hander, who made a comeback to the Indian team after eight years, impressed everyone as he scored 195 runs with two half-centuries, while also claiming 11 catches and two stumpings.
Infact, he opened in the fifth and final Test in Chennai after Murali Vijay sustained an injury during the match and could not open the innings.
Saha got the nod following his double century which helped Rest of India beat Gujarat to win the Irani Trophy in Mumbai earlier this month.
Veteran leg-spinner also retains his place in the squad despite an ordinary showing against England when he managed just five wickets in two games. Off-spinner Jayant Yadav, who took his place for the next three Tests, made ample use of the opportunity as he claimed nine wickets while scoring 221 runs including a century and a fifty.
Mukund, 27, played five Tests for India in 2011 in England and the West Indies in which he scored 211 runs at an average 21 before he was left out of the team. However, a strong showing in the Ranji Trophy this season in which he scored 849 runs in 10 matches with four centuries and three fifties helped him make a comeback to the international arena after five years.
India's premier fast bowler Mohammed Shami, who missed the last two Tests against England with a leg injury, was given a rest with a view to keep him fresh for the four-Test series against Australia, starting next month.
Ajinkya Rahane, Hardik Pandya and Jayant Yadav, who also recovered from their injuries sustained during the England Test series, retained their places in the squad.
Indian Test squad: Virat Kohli (captain), KL Rahul, Murali Vijay, Cheteshwar Pujara, Ajinkya Rahane, Karun Nair, Wriddhiman Saha, Ravichandran Ashwin, Ravindra Jadeja, Jayant Yadav, Umesh Yadav, Ishant Sharma, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Amit Mishra, Abhinav Mukund, Hardik Pandya.